Benefit Risk Ratios

  • Ton J. Cleophas
  • Aeilko H. Zwinderman


The current chapter gives an example of how, with the help of advanced statistics, pretty convincing quantitative conclusions can be drawn about drug risk and safety measurements.

For the purpose confidence intervals of ratios of normal variables are needed. Using the quadratic method, these confidence intervals can be approximated. In order to compute the variance of the ratio of two paired terms the underneath equation is required. In an example assessing the chance of intolerable dizziness of different treatment modalities for angina pectoris, the benefit risk ratio was estimated from
$$ \mathrm{Benefit}/\mathrm{risk}\ \mathrm{ratio}=\frac{\mathrm{improved}\ \mathrm{exercise}\ \mathrm{tolerance}}{\mathrm{reduced}\ \mathrm{patient}\ \mathrm{compliance}} $$

Benefit/risk ratios are the first step to a more quantitative approach to the analysis of drug safety.


Benefit risk ratios Confidence intervals of ratios Quadratic method Paired benefit risk assessment Quantitative analysis of drug safety 

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ton J. Cleophas
    • 1
  • Aeilko H. Zwinderman
    • 2
  1. 1.Albert Schweitzer HospitalDepartment MedicineSliedrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Biostatistics and EpidemiologyAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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