Advertisement

The Asian or Global Century?

  • Jennifer Joan Baldwin
Chapter
Part of the Language Policy book series (LAPO, volume 17)

Abstract

This chapter takes up the issues of languages in the university sector in the early twenty-first century. Again there were changes of government which meant changes in policies for languages and changes announced which were never implemented because of loss of government. Both sides of government focussed on the importance of the Asian region but in rather different ways. Language academics rallied together to form a new national organisation, the Languages and Cultures Network for Australian Universities. This chapter also details various innovations to further promote language study in universities. It also considers how other English-speaking countries have grappled with the teaching of languages other than English.

Keywords

The Asian Century The new Colombo Plan Language educators Innovative language teaching Languages network 

Bibliography

Government Reports, Records and Legislation

  1. Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (n.d.). Languages. Accessed from http://www.acara.edu.au/languages.html on 1 Feb 2018.
  2. Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2014a). Media release. Accessed from http://www.acara.edu.au/verve/_resources/20140721_Four_languages_curricula_release.pdf on 1 Dec 2014.
  3. Australian Government. (2011). Terms of reference. Australia in the Asian century issues paper. Accessed from http://www.corrs.com.au/assets/thinking/downloads/Australia-in-Asian-Century-Issues-Paper.pdf on 5 Jan 2015.
  4. Australian Government. (2014). Tertiary education standards and quality agency. TEQSA glossary of terms. Accessed from http://www.teqsa.gov.au/glossary on 11 Mar 2014.
  5. Australian Universities Commission. (1975a). Languages and linguistics in Australian universities: Report of the working party on languages and linguistics to the Universities commission. (known as the Kramer Report). Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.Google Scholar
  6. Bishop, J. (2013). Address to New Colombo Plan launch. Accessed from http://foreignminister.gov.au/speeches/2013/jb_sp_131210a.html on 4 Feb 2014.
  7. Department of Education, Science and Training. (2006). Maximising the opportunity: A report on the national seminar on languages education, Canberra, 30–31 October 2006. Accessed from http://www.asiaeducation.edu.au/verve/_resources/languages_education.pdf on 12 Nov 2013.
  8. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (n.d.). New Colombo Plan pilot program fact sheet. Accessed from http://dfat.gov.au/new-colombo-plan/pilot-program-fact-sheet.html on 4 Feb 2014.
  9. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2013a). Brazil country brief. Accessed from www.dfat.gov.au/geo/brazil/brazil_brief.html on 10 July 2013.
  10. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2013b). New Colombo Plan. Accessed from http://www.dfat.gov.au/new-colombo-plan/ on 8 Nov 2013.
  11. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2013c). Asian century country strategies submissions. Accessed from www.dfat.gov.au/issues/asian-century/submissions on 24 Oct 2013.
  12. Liberal Party. (2014). Review of national curriculum to put students first. Accessed from https://www.liberal.org.au/latest-news/2014/01/10/review-national-curriculum-put-students-first on 11 Mar 2014.
  13. Lo Bianco, J. (1987). National policy on languages. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.Google Scholar
  14. National Library of Australia (NLA). (n.d.). Australia in the Asian Century white paper, Accessed from http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/133850/20130914-0122/asiancentury.dpmc.gov.au/index.html on 8 Nov 2013.
  15. Office for Learning and Teaching. (n.d.). About the Office for Learning and Teaching. Accessed from http://www.olt.gov.au/about-olt on 7 Nov 2013.
  16. Prime Minister-Gillard, J. (n.d.). Brazil-Australia strategic partnership 2012. Accessed from http://pmtranscripts.dpmc.gov.au/browse.php?did=18645 on 23 Apr 2014.

Academic Reports and Surveys, Conference Proceedings

  1. Arkoudis, S., Baik, C., Marginson, S., & Cassidy, E. (2012). Internationalising the student experience in Australian tertiary education: Developing criteria and indicators. Parkville, Australia: Centre for the Study of Higher Education (CSHE), University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
  2. Baik, C. (2013). Internationalising the student experience. In S. Marginson (Ed.), Tertiary education policy in Australia (pp. 131–138). Melbourne, Australia: CSHE, University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
  3. Brecht, R. (2013). Languages for all? The Anglophone challenge. Accessed from www.casl.umd.edu/sites/default/files/LFA_WhitePaper_fnl.pdf on 25 Mar 2014.
  4. Brown, J., & Caruso, M. (2014). New courses 2012: The impact on enrolments in Italian at the University of Western Australia. In C. Travis, J. Hajek, C. Nettelbeck, Beckmann, & A. Lloyd-Smith (Eds.), Practices and policies: Current research in languages and cultures education. Selected proceedings of the LCNAU colloquium 2013 (pp. 39–53). Melbourne, Australia: LCNAU.Google Scholar
  5. Dobson, I. (2013). Mapping the humanities and social sciences: Analysis of university statistics 2002–2011. Canberra, Australia: Australian Academy of the Humanities.Google Scholar
  6. Dunne, K., & Pavlyshyn, M. (2011). Swings and roundabouts: Changes in language offerings at Australian universities 2005–2011. Accessed from www.lcnau.org/pdfs/lcnau_2011_dunne_pavlyshyn.pdf on 10 Oct 2013.
  7. Dunne, K., & Pavlyshyn, M. (2014). Less commonly taught languages in Australian higher education in 2013: Plus ça change…. In C. Travis, J. Hajek, C. Nettelbeck, Beckmann, & A. Lloyd-Smith (Eds.), Practices and policies: Current research in languages and cultures education. Selected proceedings of the LCNAU colloquium 2013 (pp. 9–17). Melbourne, Australia: LCNAU.Google Scholar
  8. Group of Eight. (2011a). Go8 LOTE incentive schemes. Accessed from http://www.go8.edu.au/_documents/university-staff/agreements/lote_august2011-.pdf on 24 Sept 2013.
  9. Group of Eight. (2011b). Go8 strategic plan. Accessed from http://www.go8.edu.au/_documents/about/-go8/strat_plan_2011-14-updated090511.pdf on 24 Sept 2013.
  10. Group of Eight (Go8). (2007). Languages in crisis: A rescue plan for Australia. Accessed from www.go8.edu.au/__documents/university-staff/agreements/go8-languages-in-crisis-discussion-paper.pdf on 7 Nov 2013.
  11. Hajek, J., Nettelbeck, C., Woods, A. (2013). Leadership for future generations: A national network for university languages final report. Office for Learning and Teaching. Accessed from http://www.lcnau.org/resources/publications on 22 May 2014.
  12. Hajek, J., Slaughter, Y., & Stevens, M. (2008). Innovative approaches in the provision of languages other than English in Australian higher education evaluation of model 2: Collaborative city-based model. Melbourne, Australia: Research Unit for Multilingualism and Cross-Cultural Communication, University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
  13. Languages and Cultures Network for Australian Universities (LCNAU). (n.d.). Background – Languages in crisis. Accessed from http://www.lcnau.org/background/ on 7 Nov 2013.
  14. LCNAU. (2011). The next step: Introducing the languages and cultures network for Australian universities – LCNAU’s National Colloquium 2011. Parkville, Australia: LCNAU.Google Scholar
  15. LCNAU. (2012). Submission by LCNAU to the issues paper: Australia in the Asian Century. Accessed from http://asiancentury.dpmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/public-submissions/LCNAU.pdf on 24 Sept 2013.
  16. LCNAU. (2014a). About LCNAU. Point 2. Accessed from http://www.lcnau.org/about/ on 11 Mar 2014.
  17. LCNAU. (2016). University languages portal Australia. Accessed from http://www.lcnau.org/university-languages-portal-australia-ulpa/ on 20 Mar 2016.
  18. Levy, M. & Steel, C. (2011). The Brisbane Universities languages Alliance (BULA): A collaborative framework for university languages provision in South-East Queensland. Selected proceedings of the inaugural LCNAU colloquium 2011. Accessed from www.lcnau.org/pdfs/lcnau_2011_levy_steel.pdf on 10 Oct 2013.
  19. Mullan, K., & Seaman, M. (2014). The diploma of languages meets AQF ‘compliance’. In C. Travis, J. Hajek, C. Nettelbeck, Beckmann, & A. Lloyd-Smith (Eds.), Practices and policies: Current research in languages and cultures education. Selected Proceedings of the Second National LCNAU Colloquium Canberra, 3–5 July 2013 (pp. 71–84). Melbourne, Australia: LCNAU.Google Scholar
  20. Nettelbeck, C., Byron, J., Clyne, M., Dunne, K., Hajek, J., Levy, M., Lo Bianco, J., McLaren, A., Möllering, M., & Wigglesworth, G. (2009). An analysis of retention strategies and technology enhanced learning in beginners’ languages other than English (LOTE) at Australian universities. Canberra, Australia: The Australian Academy of the Humanities.Google Scholar
  21. Nettelbeck, C., Byron, J., Clyne, M., Hajek, J., Lo Bianco, J., & McLaren, A. (2007). Beginners’ LOTE (languages other than English) in Australian universities: An audit survey and analysis. Canberra, Australia: The Australian Academy of the Humanities.Google Scholar
  22. Nettelbeck, C., Hajek, J., & Woods, A. (2012). Re-professionalizing the profession: Countering juniorization and casualization in the tertiary languages sector. Local-Global Journal, 9, 60–75.Google Scholar
  23. Pauwels, A. (2003). Strengthening scholarship in language study in Australian universities. In G. Wigglesworth (Ed.), Proceedings of the marking our difference conference 2003 (pp. 9–21). Parkville, Australia: School of Languages, University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
  24. Royal Society of New Zealand. (2013). Languages in Aotearoa New Zealand. Accessed from http://royalsociety.org.nz/assets/Uploads/Languages-in-Aotearoa-New-Zealand.pdf on 1 Mar 2018.
  25. Turner, G., & Brass, K. (2014). Mapping the humanities, arts and social sciences in Australia. Canberra, Australia: Australian Academy of the Humanities.Google Scholar
  26. Universities Australia. (2013). An agenda for Australian higher education 2013–2016: A smarter Australia. Canberra, Australia: Universities Australia.Google Scholar
  27. White, P., & Baldauf, R., Jr. (2006). Re-examining Australia’s tertiary language programs: A five year retrospective on teaching and collaboration. Brisbane, Australia: Report to the Deans of Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities (DASH).Google Scholar
  28. Wigglesworth, G. (2003). Introduction. In G. Wigglesworth (Ed.), Proceedings of the marking our difference conference 2003 (pp. 3–6). Parkville, Australia: School of Languages, University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
  29. Worton, M. (2009). Review of modern foreign languages provision in higher education in England. Accessed from http://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/year/2009/200941/ on 24 Mar 2014.

University Records and Official Publications

  1. Australian National University. (2013a). Study at ANU 2013. Introduction. Academic programs. Accessed from https://studyat.anu.edu.au/2013/college_introductions/cap.html on 4 Feb 2014.
  2. Australian National University. (2013b). Home- School of language studies-ANU. Accessed from http://www.languages.anu.edu.au on 17 Oct 2013.
  3. Australian National University. (2013c). Centre for Arab & Islamic studies-undergraduate studies. Accessed from http://cais.anu.edu.au/programs/undergraduate-study on 20 Sept 2013.
  4. Australian National University. (2013d). Undergraduate Asian languages. Accessed from https://studyat.anu.edu.au/2013/undergraduate/AsianLang.html on 17 Oct 2013.
  5. Monash University. (2013). Why study languages at Monash? Accessed from https://www.artsonline.monash.edu.au/lcl/why-study-languages-at-monash/ on 17 Oct 2013.
  6. University of Adelaide. (2013a). Asian studies. Accessed from www.hss.adelaide.edu.au/asian/ on 20 Sept 2013.
  7. University of Adelaide. (2013b). Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. Accessed from www.hss.adelaide.edu.au/about/schools on 20 Sept 2013.
  8. University of Adelaide. (2013c). Why study classics? Accessed from www.hss.adelaide.edu.au/classics on 17 Oct 2013.
  9. University of Adelaide. (2013d). Why study French? Accessed from www.hss.adelaide.edu.au/french/whystudy/ on 17 Oct 2013.
  10. University of Adelaide. (2013e). Why study German? Accessed from www.hss.adelaide.edu.au/german/whystudy/ on 17 Oct 2013.
  11. University of Adelaide. (2013f). Why study Hispanic studies? Accessed from www.hss.adelaide.edu.au/spanish/whystudy/ on 17 Oct 2013.
  12. University of Melbourne (UniMelb). (n.d.). Learn more about breadth. Accessed from http://breadth.unimelb.edu.au/breadth/info.index.html on 10 Mar 2014.
  13. University of Melbourne. (2013a). Arabic languages and studies. Accessed from http://asiainstitute.unimelb.edu.au/study/arabic on 17 Oct 2013.
  14. University of Melbourne. (2013b). Chinese language and studies. Accessed from http://asiainstitute.unimelb.edu.au/study/chinese on 17 Oct 2013.
  15. University of Melbourne. (2013c). Indonesian language and studies. Accessed from http://asiainstitute.unimelb.edu.au/study/indonesian on 17 Oct 2013.
  16. University of Melbourne. (2013d). Japanese language and studies Accessed from http://asiainstitute.unimelb.edu.au/study/japanese on 17 Oct 2013.
  17. University of Melbourne. (2013e). School of languages and linguistics-French studies. Accessed from http://languages-linguistics.unimelb.edu.au/areas/french on 17 Oct 2013.
  18. University of Melbourne. (2013f). School of languages and linguistics-German studies. Accessed from http://languages-linguistics.unimelb.edu.au/areas/german on 17 Oct 2013.
  19. University of Melbourne. (2013g). School of languages and linguistics-Italian studies. Accessed from http://languages-linguistics.unimelb.edu.au/areas/italian on 17 Oct 2013.
  20. University of Melbourne. (2013h). School of languages and linguistics-Russian studies. Accessed from http://languages-linguistics.unimelb.edu.au/areas/russian on 17 Oct 2013.
  21. University of Melbourne. (2013i). School of languages and linguistics-Spanish and Latin American studies. Accessed from http://languages-linguistics.unimelb.edu.au/areas/Spanish-latin-american on 17 Oct 2013.
  22. University of Melbourne. (2014). Growing esteem 2014: A discussion paper. Parkville, Australia: University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
  23. University of Melbourne Asia Institute. (n.d.). Endowed chair at Asia Institute. Accessed from http://asianinstitute.unimelb.edu.au/study/islamic_studies/endowed_chair on 15 Apr 2014.
  24. University of New South Wales. (2013). About languages and language learning. Accessed from https://hal.arts.unsw.edu.au/disciplines/languages-language-learning/about/ on 20 Sept 2013.
  25. University of Queensland. (2013). School of languages & comparative cultural studies. Accessed from www.slccs.uq.edu.au/index.html?page=17998 on 17 Oct 2013.
  26. University of Sydney. (2013). Departments and programs within the school of languages and cultures. Accessed from http://sydney.edu.au/arts/slc/departments_programs/index.shtml on 18 Apr 2013.
  27. University of Western Australia. (2013a). Classics and ancient history: School of Humanities Accessed from www.humanities.uwa.edu.au/home/clah on 20 Sept 2013.
  28. University of Western Australia. (2013b). European languages and studies: School of Humanities. Accessed from www.humanities.uwa.edu.au/home/els on 20 Sept 2013.
  29. University of Western Australia. (2013c). Asian studies: School of Social Sciences. Accessed from www.sscs.arts.uwa.edu.au/home/asian-studies on 20 Sept 2013.
  30. Winter, J. (2009). Collaborative models for the provision of languages in Australian universities. DASSH Steering Committee: Accessed from http://dassh.edu.au/resources/uploads/publications/project_reports/2009_CASR_Collaborative_Models.pdf on 15 Oct 2013.

Newspapers

  1. A strong Asian narrative but now for the real work. [Editorial]. (2012, October 30). The Australian, p. 13.Google Scholar
  2. Barrett, R. (2014, December 12). National curriculum changes referred to national authority ACARA after Education Council meeting. ABC News. Accessed from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-12-12/national-curriculum-changes-on-education-council-agenda/5962092 on 20 Feb 2015.
  3. British Academy. (2013). Lost for words. Report shows language skills deficit threatens UK’s security and global influence. Accessed from http://www.britac.ac.uk/news/news.cfm/newsid/1019 on 25 Mar 2014.
  4. Helmore. (2013). Policy needs to change to address the US and UK’s language deficits. The Guardian. Accessed from http://www.theguardian.com/education/2013/oct11/global-citizens-language-skills on Mar 2014.
  5. Lane, B. (2012b, August 1). Languages soar as ‘breadth’ options. The Australian. Accessed from http://www.theaustralian.com.au/higher-education/languages-soar-as-breadth-options/story-e6frgcjx-1226439751879# on 10 Mar 2014.
  6. Lindsey, T. (2012, October 30). Mind your language, The Age, p. 7.Google Scholar
  7. Macdonald, E. (2013, November 15). ANU gets $1m gift for languages. The Canberra Times. Accessed from http://www.canberratimes.com.au/act-news/anu-gets-1m-gift-for-languages-20131114-2xk09.html on 28 Nov 2013.
  8. Preiss, B. (2012, October 29). Languages studies plan backed despite high cost. The Age, p. 2.Google Scholar
  9. Tovey, J. (2014, January 14), Educators take ministers to task over national curriculum review. Sydney Morning Herald. Accessed from http://www.smh.com.au/national/education/educators-take-minister-to-task-over-national-curriculum-review-20140113-30qm4.html on 11 Mar 2014.
  10. Trounson, A. (2014, April 2). Lack of Asian ‘no bar to Colombo Plan’. The Australian Higher Education. p. 28.Google Scholar

Books, Articles and Websites

  1. Australian Centre for Italian Studies (ACIS). (n.d.). Cassamarca positions. Accessed from http://acis.org.au/cassamarca-positions/ on 15 Apr 2014.
  2. Blackton, C. (1951). The Colombo Plan. Far Eastern Survey, 20(3), 27–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bradshaw, J., Deumart, A., & Burridge, K. (2008). Victoria’s languages – Gateway to the world. Melbourne, Australia: VITA Language Link.Google Scholar
  4. Burnaby, B. (1996). Language policies in Canada. In M. Herriman & B. Burnaby (Eds.), Language policies in English-dominant countries (pp. 159–219). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  5. Burnaby, B. (2008). Language policy and education in Canada. Accessed from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227194713_Language_Policy_and_Education_in_Canada on 1 Mar 2018.
  6. Clyne, M. (1997). Language policy in Australia – Achievements, disappointments, prospects. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 18(1), 63–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clyne, M. (2005). Australia’s language potential. Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales Press.Google Scholar
  8. Clyne, F., Marginson, S., & Woock, R. (2001). International education in Australian universities: Concepts and definitions. Melbourne Studies in Education, 42(1), 111–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fornasiero, J., & West-Sooby, J. (2003). Adelaide’s outreach programme: Who’s responsible? Unpublished conference, Marking Our Difference Conference, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  10. Gothard, J. (2013). Colombo II: Send students to Asia but don’t ignore the Asian students at home. Accessed from http://theconversation.com/colombo-ii-send-students-to-asia-but-dont-ignore-the-asian-students-at-home-18156 on 13 Nov 2013.
  11. Haque, E. (2010). Bilingualism, multiculturalism, and language training. In M. Morris (Ed.), Canadian language policies in comparative perspective (pp. 267–296). Montreal, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Harvey, S. (2015). Superdiversity, language and policy: Where should the intersections be for Aotearoa/New Zealand? Paper presented at the AKTESOL Expo (Auckland branch of the TESOL Association of Aotearoa New Zealand). Accessed from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281830847_Superdiversity_language_and_policy_Where_should_the_intersections_be_for_Aotearoa_New_Zealand on 12 Mar 2018.
  13. Japan Foundation. (n.d.). The Japan foundation. Accessed from http://www.jpf.org.au/aboutus.html on 23 Apr 2014.
  14. Kinoshita, Y. (2018). Educational impact of replacing on-campus courses with cross-institutional arrangements: A language case study. The Language Learning Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2018.1448431.
  15. Knight, J. (2004). Internationalization remodelled: Definition, approaches, and rationales. Journal of Studies in International Education, 8(5), 5–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li, L. (2012). Internationalising university curriculum with multilingual knowledge and skills: Power, politics and policy. Local-Global Journal, 9, 44–58.Google Scholar
  17. Liddicoat, A., & Scarino, A. (2010). Languages in Australian education: An introduction. In A. Liddicoat & A. Scarino (Eds.), Languages in Australian education: Problems, prospects and future directions (pp. 1–8). Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  18. Lo Bianco, J. (2009). Second languages and Australian schooling. Australian Education Review, 54. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  19. Lo Bianco, J., & Aliani, R. (2013). Language planning and student experiences: Intention, rhetoric and implementation. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mackey, W. (2010). Language policies in Canada. In M. Morris (Ed.), Canadian language policies in comparative perspective (pp. 18–66). Montreal, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Morris, M. (Ed.). (2010). Canadian language policies in comparative perspective. Montreal, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Murray, D. (2013). Internationalisation: Where to from here? In S. Marginson (Ed.), Tertiary education policy in Australia (pp. 113–122). Melbourne, Australia: CSHE, University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
  23. Rizvi, F., & Walsh, L. (1998). Difference, globalisation and internationalisation of curriculum. Australian Universities Review, 2, 7–11.Google Scholar
  24. Shiel, T. (2013). What next for universities under Abbott? Accessed from http://theconversation.com/what-next-for-universities-under-abbott-17950 8 Nov 2013.
  25. Tisdell, M. (1998). Socio-economic aspect of languages policies: An Australian perspective. International Journal of Social Economics, 25(2/3/4), 134–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wächter, B. (2003). An introduction: Internationalisation at home in context. Journal of Studies in International Education, 7(5), 5–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer Joan Baldwin
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of ArtsUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations