Advertisement

Galvanically Graded Interface: A Computational Model for Mitigating Galvanic Corrosion Between Magnesium and Mild Steel

  • Kurt A. Spies
  • Vilayanur V. Viswanathan
  • Ayoub Soulami
  • Yuri Hovanski
  • Vineet V. JoshiEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)

Abstract

The impact of a graded metallic spacer on the galvanic corrosion between magnesium and mild steel is investigated in this work using a COMSOL model based on a validated numerical model. A graded spacer of 4 mm thickness decreases the peak galvanic corrosion by 50% over a system without a spacer, and 37% over a system with an aluminum spacer. The impact of the electrochemical properties of spacer materials is also investigated.

Keywords

Multimaterial Joining Magnesium Alloy Steel Corrosion 

References

  1. 1.
    M. G. Fontana, Corrosion Engineering. McGraw Hill, 2005.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Groche, S. Wohletz, M. Brenneis, C. Pabst, and F. Resch, “Joining by forming–A review on joint mechanisms, applications and future trends,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., vol. 214, pp. 1972–1994, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. I. Mori, N. Bay, L. Fratini, F. Micari, and A. E. Tekkaya, “Joining by plastic deformation,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol., vol. 62, pp. 673–694, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Z. Sun and R. Karppi, “The application of electron beam welding for the joining of dissimilar metals: an overview,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., vol. 59, pp. 257–267, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. F. Emley, Principles of Magnesium Technology. Oxford: Pergamon Press Ltd., 1966.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Q. Ge, D. Dellasega, A. G. Demir, and M. Vedani, “The processing of ultrafine-grained Mg tubes for biodegradable stents,” Acta Biomater., vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 8604–8610, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Hirsch and T. Al-Samman, “Supreior light metals by texture engineering: Optimized aluminum and magnesium alloys for automotive applications,” Acta Materialia, vol. 61, pp. 818–843, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    W. Joost, “Reducgin Vehicle Weight and Improving U.S. Energy Efficiency Using Integrated Computational Materials Engineering,” JOM, vol. 64, pp. 1032–1038, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Atrens, Z. Shi, and G. L. Song, “Numerical modelling of galvanic corrosion of magnesium (Mg) alloys,” in Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys, G. I. Song, Ed. 2011, pp. 455–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Song, B. Johannesson, S. Hapugoda, D. St Jonn, and D. StJohn, “Galvanic Corrosion of Magnesium Alloy AZ91D in contact with an aluminium alloy, steel, and zinc,” Corros. Sci., vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 955–977, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. Liu, “Introduction to the welding and joining of magnesium,” in Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys, L. Liu, Ed. Woodhead Publishing, 2010, pp. 3–8.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    L. Liu, “Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys,” in Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys, L. Liu, Ed. Woodhead Publishing, 2010, pp. 38–63.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. Liu, “The Joining of Magnesium Alloy to Steel,” in Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys, L. Liu, Ed. Woodhead Publishing, 2010, pp. 63–79.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    L. Liu, “Corrosion and Protection of Magnesium Alloy Welds,” in Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys, L. Liu, Ed. Woodhead Publishing, 2010, pp. 79–94.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. Watanabe, “Brazing and Soldering of Magnesium Alloys,” in Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys, L. Liu, Ed. Woodhead Publishing, 2010, pp. 97–121.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Heger and M. Horstmann, “Mechanical Joining of Magnesium Alloys,” in Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys, L. Liu, Ed. Woodhead Publishing, 2010, pp. 122–148.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    L. Liu, “Adhesive Bonding of Magnesium Alloys,” in Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys, L. Liu, Ed. Woodhead Publishing, 2010, pp. 149–159.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Song, “Metal Inert Gas Welding of Magnesium Alloys,” in Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys, L. Liu, Ed. Woodhead Publishing, 2010, pp. 178–196.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Song, “Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding of Magnesium Alloys,” in Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys, L. Liu, Ed. Woodhead Publishing, 2010, pp. 229–253.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. L. Mordlike and T. Ebert, “Magnesium: Properties - Applications - Potential,” Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 302, pp. 37–45, 2001.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    L. Liu, “Preparation for welding of magnesium alloys,” in Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys, L. Liu, Ed. Woodhead Publishing, 2010, pp. 16–22.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. X. Jia, G. Song, and A. Atrens, “Influence of geometry on galvanic corrosion of AZ91D coupled to steel,” Corros. Sci., vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 2133–2153, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. Song, A. Atrens, X. Wu, and B. Zhang, “Corrosion behaviour of AZ21, AZ501 and AZ91 in sodium chloride,” Corros. Sci., vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 1769–1791, Oct. 1998.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. X. Jia, G. Song, and A. Atrens, “Experimental measurement and computer simulation of galvanic corrosion of magnesium coupled to steel,” Adv. Eng. Mater., vol. 9, no. 1–2, pp. 65–74, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    K. B. Deshpande, “Effect of aluminium spacer on galvanic corrosion between magnesium and mild steel using numerical model and SVET experiments,” Corros. Sci., vol. 62, pp. 184–191, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    F. Mansfeld and E. P. Parry, “Galvanic corrosion of bare and coated Al alloys coupled to stainless steel 304 or Ti-6Al-4 V,” Corros. Sci., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 605–621, Jan. 1973.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. R. Cross, R. Woollam, S. Shademan, and C. A. Schuh, “Computational design and optimization of multilayered and functionally graded corrosion coatings,” Corros. Sci., vol. 77, pp. 297–307, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    T. Amorim, C. Allély, and J. Caire, “Modelling coating lifetime: first practical application for coating design,” 2008.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    F. Thébault, B. Vuillemin, R. Oltra, K. Ogle, and C. Allely, “Investigation of self-healing mechanism on galvanized steels cut edges by coupling SVET and numerical modeling,” Electrochim. Acta, vol. 53, no. 16, pp. 5226–5234, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    K. Gusieva, C. H. J. Davies, J. R. Scully, and N. Birbilis, “Corrosion of magnesium alloys: the role of alloying,” Int. Mater. Rev., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 169–194, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    “Bimetallic Corrosion: Guides to Good Practice in Corrosion Control,” Teddington, Middlesex UK, 2000.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    H. S. Isaacs, A. J. Aldykiewicz, D. Thierry, and T. C. Simpson, “Measurements of corrosion at defects in painted zinc and zinc alloy coated steels using current density mapping,” Corrosion, vol. 52, pp. 163–168, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    F. Mansfeld, “Area Relationship in Galvanic Corrosion,” Corrosion, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 436–442, 1971.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    K. B. Deshpande, “Validated numerical modelling of galvanic corrosion for couples: Magnesium alloy (AE44)-mild steel and AE44-aluminium alloy (AA6063) in brine solution,” Corros. Sci., vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 3514–3522, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    S. R. Cross, S. Gollapudi, and C. A. Schuh, “Validated numerical modeling of galvanic corrosion of zinc and aluminum coatings,” Corros. Sci., vol. 88, pp. 226–233, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    F. Thébault, B. Vuillemin, R. Oltra, C. Allely, and K. Ogle, “Reliability of numerical models for simulating galvanic corrosion processes,” Electrochim. Acta, vol. 82, pp. 349–355, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    C. R. Crowe and R. G. Kasper, “Ionic Current Densities in the Nearfield of a Corroding Iron-Copper Galvanic Couple,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 133, no. 5, pp. 879–887, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    K. B. Deshpande, “Experimental investigation of galvanic corrosion: Comparison between SVET and immersion techniques,” Corros. Sci., vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 2819–2826, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    P. Doig and P. E. J. Flewitt, “A Finite Difference Numerical Analysis of Galvanic Corrosion for Semi-Infinite Linear Coplanar Electrodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 126, pp. 2057–2063, 1979.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    S. Palani, T. Hack, J. Deconinck, and H. Lohner, “Validation of predictive model for galvanic corrosion under thin electrolyte layers: An application to aluminium 2024-CFRP material combination,” Corros. Sci., vol. 78, pp. 89–100, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. Newman and K. E. Thomas-Alyea, Electrochemical Systems, 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2004.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    A. Stenta, S. Basco, A. Smith, C. B. Clemons, D. Golovaty, K. L. Kreider, J. Wilder, G. W. Young, and R. S. Lillard, “One-dimensional approach to modeling damage evolution in galvanic corrosion,” Corros. Sci., vol. 88, pp. 36–48, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    R. Shimamura, A. Sugimoto, T. Fujiwara, and O. Seri, “Polarization behavior and its analysis of 1050 aluminum in solution containing chloride ions,” J. Japan Inst. Light Met., vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 303–309, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    A. D. Südholz, N. T. Kirkland, R. G. Buchheit, and N. Birbilis, “Electrochemical Properties of Intermetallic Phases and Common Impurity Elements in Magnesium Alloys,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett., vol. 14, no. 2, p. C5, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    N. L. Sukiman, X. Zhou, N. Birbilis, A. E. Hughes, J. M. C. Mol, S. J. Garcia, and G. E. Thompson, “Durability and Corrosion of Aluminium and Its Alloys: Overview, Property Space, Techniques and Developments,” in Aluminium Alloys - New Trends in Fabrication and Applications, Z. Ahmad, Ed. 2012, pp. 47–97.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    G. R. Corporation, “Conductivity Ordering Guide.” [Online]. Available: https://www.grc.com/dev/ces/tns/conductivity_v_concentration.pdf. [Accessed: 01-Jan-2015].

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt A. Spies
    • 1
  • Vilayanur V. Viswanathan
    • 1
  • Ayoub Soulami
    • 1
  • Yuri Hovanski
    • 1
  • Vineet V. Joshi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Pacific Northwest National LaboratoryRichlandUSA

Personalised recommendations