Effect of Stress Concentration on Strength and Fracture Behavior of Dissimilar Metal Joints

  • Tianhao Wang
  • Rajiv MishraEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


Dissimilar metal joints tend to fracture along the welded interface during tensile testing, particularly in butt joint configuration. A common explanation relates formation of brittle intermetallic compound layer at dissimilar weld interface to crack initiation and propagation. This typically leads to lower strength and ductility of the dissimilar material joint. However, another critical aspect determining strength and fracture behavior of dissimilar material joints is the existence of stress concentration at the welded interface during mechanical loading. Mismatch of elastic modulus of dissimilar materials creates stress concentration at the initial stage of mechanical loading, which facilitated crack initiation at the welded interface. In this overview, factors leading to stress concentration and their impact on dissimilar joint strength and fracture behavior have been highlighted.


Dissimilar joining Fracture Stress concentration 



This work was supported under the NSF-IUCRC grant for Friction Stir Processing (NSF-IIP 1157754). The additional support of Boeing, General Motors, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Army Research Laboratory and Korea Aerospace Research Institute for the UNT CFSP site is acknowledged. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the US Government. The views and opinions of the authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the US Government or any agency thereof. We also acknowledge the UNT Materials Research Faculty (MRF).


  1. 1.
    Kumar N, Yuan W, Mishra RS (2015) Friction stir welding of dissimilar alloys and materials. Butterworth-HeinemannGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tsujino J, Hidai K, Hasegawa A, Kanai R, Matsuura H, Matsushima K, Ueoka T (2002) Ultrasonic butt welding of aluminum, aluminum alloy and stainless steel plate specimens. Ultrasonics 40(1–8):371–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nezhad MSA, Ardakani AH (2009) A study of joint quality of aluminum and low carbon steel strips by warm rolling. Mater Des 30(4):1103–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Peng L, Yajiang L, Juan W, Jishi G (2003) Vacuum brazing technology and microstructure near the interface of Al/18-8 stainless steel. Mater Res Bull 38(9–10):1493–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Taban E, Gould JE, Lippold JC (2010) Dissimilar friction welding of 6061-T6 aluminum and AISI 1018 steel: properties and microstructural characterization. Mater Des 31(5):2305–2311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Uzun H, Dalle Donne C, Argagnotto A, Ghidini T, Gambaro C (2005) Friction stir welding of dissimilar Al 6013-T4 to X5CrNi18-10 stainless steel. Mater Des 26(1):41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coelho RS, Kostka A, Dos Santos J, Pyzalla AR (2008) EBSD technique visualization of material flow in aluminum to steel friction-stir dissimilar welding. Adv Eng Mater 10(12):1127–1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tanaka T, Morishige T, Hirata T (2009) Comprehensive analysis of joint strength for dissimilar friction stir welds of mild steel to aluminum alloys. Scr Mater 61:756–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu LM, Zhao X (2008) Study on the weld joint of Mg alloy and steel by laser-GTA hybrid welding. Mater Charact 59(9):1279–1284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Patel VK, Bhole SD, Chen DL (2013) Formation of zinc interlayer texture during dissimilar ultrasonic spot welding of magnesium and high strength low alloy steel. Mater Des 45:236–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kasai H, Morisada Y, Fujii H (2015) Dissimilar FSW of immiscible materials: steel/magnesium. Mater Sci Eng A 624:250–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang T, Shukla S, Nene SS, Frank M, Wheeler RW, Mishra RS (2018) Towards obtaining sound butt joint between metallurgically immiscible pure Cu and stainless steel through friction stir welding. Metall Mater Trans A 49(7):2578–2582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sahlot P, Nene SS, Frank M, Mishra RS, Arora A (2018) Towards attaining dissimilar lap joint of CuCrZr alloy and 316L stainless steel using friction stir welding. Sci Technol Weld Join 23(8):715–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang T, Mageshwari K, Liu K, Mishra RS (2018) Friction stir butt welding of strain-hardened aluminum alloy with high strength steel. Mater Sci Eng AGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringCenter for Friction Stir Processing and Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Processes Institute, University of North TexasDentonUSA

Personalised recommendations