Investigation on Mechanical Behaviors of Polyamide 11 Reinforced with Halloysite Nanotubes

  • Danae Lopes FranciscoEmail author
  • Lucilene Betega de Paiva
  • Wagner Aldeia
  • Ademar B. Lugão
  • Esperidiana A. B. Moura
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


The inorganic halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are a promising type of natural occurring filler for polymers. Its characteristics such as high aspect ratio (10–50), small size, and high strength (elastic modulus—140 GPa) suggest that HNTs have a potential use in high-performance polymer nanocomposites. Compared to other nanoclays and nanosilica, the relatively low content of hydroxyl groups on their surfaces makes HNTs relatively hydrophobic, although, sometimes, this is not sufficient for guaranty a good interfacial adhesion in composite systems. In the present study, halloysite nanotubes were incorporated in a polyamide 11 (PA11) matrix by melt extrusion, using a twin-screw extruder and injection molding machine. The neat PA11 and PA11/HNT nanocomposites were characterized by mechanical tests (tensile, flexural and impact tests), and the correlation between properties were discussed.


Polyamide Halloysite Nanocomposites Mechanical properties 



The authors wish to thank CAPES and CNPq for the support for this work.


  1. 1.
    Unal H (2010) Morphology and mechanical properties of composites based on polyamide 6 and mineral additives. Mater Des 25(6):483–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Du M, Guo B, Jia D (2010) Newly emerging applications of halloysite nanotubes: a review. Polym Int 59:(5)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sharif NFA, Mohamad Z, Hassan A, Wahit MU (2012) Novel epoxidized natural rubber toughened polyamide 6/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites. J Polym Res 19(1):9749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Prashantha K, Schmitt H, Lacrampe MF, Krawczak P (2011) Mechanical behavior and essential work of fracture of halloysite nanotubes filled polyamide 6 nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 71(16):1859–1866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Handge UA, Hedicke-Höchstötter K, Altstädt V (2010) Composites of polyamide 6 and silicate nanotubes of the mineral halloysite: Influence of molecular weight on thermal, mechanical and rheological properties. Polymer 51(12):2690–2699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prashantha K, Lacrampe MF, Krawczak P (2011) Processing and characterization of halloysite nanotubes filled polypropylene nanocomposites based on a masterbatch route: effect of halloysites treatment on structural and mechanical properties. Express Polym Lett 5(4):295–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guo B, Zou Q, Lei Y, Jia D (2009) Structure and performance of polyamide 6/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites. Polym J 41(10):835–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang B, Huang H (2013) Effects of halloysite nanotube orientation on crystallization and thermal stability of polypropylene nanocomposites. Polym Degrad Stab 98(9):1601–1608CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Danae Lopes Francisco
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Lucilene Betega de Paiva
    • 1
  • Wagner Aldeia
    • 1
  • Ademar B. Lugão
    • 2
  • Esperidiana A. B. Moura
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Chemical Process and Particle Technology, Group for BionanomanufacturingInstitute for Technological Research of State of São Paulo, IPTSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Center for Chemical and Environmental Technology (CQMA), Nuclear and Energy Research InstituteSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations