Advertisement

Microplastics: A Novel Method for Surface Water Sampling and Sample Extraction in Elechi Creek, Rivers State, Nigeria

  • Example BriggsEmail author
  • Esperidiana A. B. de Moura
  • Helio A. Furusawa
  • Marycel E. B. Cotrim
  • Emeka E. Oguzie
  • Ademar B. Lugao
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)

Abstract

The geometric increase in the production and exploitation of plastics worldwide has several advantages as well as disadvantages due to the mismanagement of plastic waste. These waste products find its way into the aquatic body. Microplastics are plastic particles with its longest diameter less than or equal to 5 mm. Their microscopic nature, irregular color and morphology have made their extraction from the buoyant organic materials problematic. This work documents for the first time, the sampling and sample extraction of microplastics in Nigeria. An optimized sampling and sample extraction protocol for surface water was developed. The extraction protocol was developed in a laboratory study using a simulated sample that mimics the environmental sample (microplastics + organic materials). A micronized LDPE (<300 μm) was used for the study and yielded a percentage recovery rate of 82%. The digested microplastics which were subjected to SEM analysis showed a slight change in the surface morphology. Thereafter, the environmental sample was extracted using the developed laboratory protocol and a high positive result was achieved. This protocol improved NOAA’s method of extraction by excluding the use of microscope for the final extraction, which, of course, will yield a biased result. This was achieved by the addition of ethanol to the final solution.

Keywords

Microplastics sampling Microplastics extraction Density separation 

References

  1. 1.
    Derraik JGB (2002) The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Mar Pollut Bull 44(9):842–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ellias HG, Mülhaupt R (2015) Plastics, general survey, 1. Definition, molecular structure and properties. Ullmann’s Encycl Ind Chem 56–68Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andrady AL (2011) Microplastics in the marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull [Internet]. 62(8):1596–605. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.05.030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kalčíková G, Žgajnar Gotvajn A, Kladnik A, Jemec A (2017) Impact of polyethylene microbeads on the floating freshwater plant duckweed Lemna minor. Environ PollutGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fendall LS, Sewell MA (2009) Contributing to marine pollution by washing your face: microplastics in facial cleansers. Mar Pollut Bull [Internet] 58(8):1225–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.04.025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thompson RC, Moore CJ, vom Saal FS, Swan SH (2009) Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci [Internet] 364(1526):2153–66. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/cgi/doi/10.1098/rstb.2009.0053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gouin T, Roche N, Lohmann R, Hodges G (2011) A thermodynamic approach for assessing the environmental exposure of chemicals absorbed to microplastic. Environ Sci Technol 45:1466–1472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rios LM, Moore C, Jones PR (2007) Persistent organic pollutants carried by synthetic polymers in the ocean environment. Mar Pollut Bull 54(8):1230–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Engler RE (2012) The complex interaction between marine debris and toxic chemicals in the ocean. Environ Sci Technol 46(22):12302–12315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hidalgo-Ruz V, Thiel M (2013) Distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on beaches in the SE Pacific (Chile): a study supported by a citizen science project. Mar Environ Res [Internet] 87–88:12–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2013.02.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mani T, Hauk A, Walter U, Burkhardt-Holm P (2015) Microplastics profile along the Rhine river. Sci RepGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ng KL, Obbard JP (2006) Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore’s coastal marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull 52(7):761–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cole M, Lindeque P, Halsband C, Galloway TS (2011) Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: a review. Mar Pollut Bull [Internet] 62(12):2588–2597. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.09.025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Desforges JPW, Galbraith M, Ross PS (2015) Ingestion of Microplastics by Zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 69(3):320–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Foekema EM, De Gruijter C, Mergia MT, van Franeker JA, Murk AJ, Koelmans AA (2013) Plastic in North Sea Fish. Environ Sci Technol [Internet] 47(15):8818–8824. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23777286%5Cnhttp://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es400931bCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Demographia (2015) Demographia World Urban areas & population projections. Demographia 132Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ikebude CF (2017) Feasibility study on Solid Waste Management in Port Harcourt Metropolis: causes, effect and possible solutions. Niger J Technol [Internet] 36(1):276–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njt.v36i1.33
  18. 18.
    Crawford CB, Quinn B (2017) Microplastic collection techniques. Microplastic Pollut [Internet] 179–202. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/B9780128094068000086
  19. 19.
    Löder MGJ, Gerdts G (2015) Methodology used for the detection and identification of microplastics—a critical appraisalGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kovač Viršek M, Palatinus A, Koren Š, Peterlin M, Horvat P, Kržan A (2016) Protocol for Microplastics sampling on the Sea surface and sample analysis. J Vis ExpGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Davies OA, Uyi AME (2006) Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in water, sediment and periwinkle (Tympanotonus fuscatus var radula) from the Elechi Creek, Niger Delta. Afr J Biotechnol [Internet] 5(10):968–73. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB
  22. 22.
    Masura J, Baker J, Foster G, Arthur C (2015) Laboratory methods for the analysis of microplastics in the marine environment: recommendations for quantifying synthetic particles in waters and sediments. NOAA Tech Memo 39Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Example Briggs
    • 1
    Email author
  • Esperidiana A. B. de Moura
    • 2
  • Helio A. Furusawa
    • 2
  • Marycel E. B. Cotrim
    • 2
  • Emeka E. Oguzie
    • 1
  • Ademar B. Lugao
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental TechnologyFederal University of Technology OwerriOwerriNigeria
  2. 2.Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e NuclearesSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations