Advertisement

The Nigerian State in Arms: It Begins

  • Olumuyiwa Temitope Faluyi
  • Sultan Khan
  • Adeoye O. Akinola
Chapter
Part of the Advances in African Economic, Social and Political Development book series (AAESPD)

Abstract

This chapter presents the background to the strategies adopted by the Nigerian government to counter Boko Haram. It critically examines the counter-terrorism strategies adopted by the Nigerian government, highlights the motivation for the choice of these measures, and investigates the factors responsible for the state’s failure to rid the country of the terror of Boko Haram. The chapter also provides a preliminary analysis of the historical antecedents of the Nigerian state. It reviews the origins of religious conflict in the country and presents an overview of the politics of diversity that reinforces violent conflict among groups and against the state, as well as the socio-economic and political realities that led to the emergence and sustained presence of Boko Haram. Finally, practical policy options are recommended to combat Boko Haram and other armed groups that employ similar tactics.

References

  1. Aborisade, O. and Mundt, R. (2002). Politics in Nigeria. Second edition. New York: LongmanGoogle Scholar
  2. Adesoji, A.O. (2011). Between Maitatsine and Boko Haram: Islamic Fundamentalism and the Response of the Nigerian State. Africa Today, 57 (2): 98–119.Google Scholar
  3. Adetayo, O. (2016). Buhari Considers Swapping B’Haram Detainees for Chibok Girls. Accessed on 1st May 2017 from http://punchng.com/buhari-considers-swapping-bharam-detainees-chibok-girls/
  4. Adole, R.A. (2015). The Role of Political Leaders in the Resolution of Political Violence in Yobe State, North-East Region-Nigeria. Journal of Political Science and Administration, 3 (3): 24–48.Google Scholar
  5. Ahokegh, A.F. (2012). Boko Haram: A 21st Century Challenge in Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, 8 (21): 46–55.Google Scholar
  6. Ajayi, Y. (2016). What We Know about Boko Haram’s New Leader, Abu Musab al-Barnawi. Accessed on 7th August 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/08/know-boko-harams-new-leader-abu-musab-al-barnawi/
  7. Akinbi, J. (2015). Examining Boko Haram Insurgency in Northern Nigeria and the Quest for a Permanent Resolution of the Crisis. Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, 3 (8): 32–45.Google Scholar
  8. Akinola, A. and Tella, O. (2013). Boko Haram Terrorism and Nigeria’s Security Dilemma: Rethinking the State’s Capacity. International Journal of Innovative Social Sciences and Humanities Research, 1 (3): 70–78.Google Scholar
  9. Akinola, A. and Uzodike, U.O. (2013). The Threat of ‘Boko Haram’ Terrorism and Niger Delta Militancy to Security and Development in Africa: From Myth to Reality. Gandhi Marg, 35 (3): 391–418.Google Scholar
  10. Akpan, F. Ekanem, O. and Olofu-Adeoye, A. (2014). Boko Haram Insurgency and the Counter-Terrorism Policy in Nigeria. Canadian Social Science, 10 (2): 151–155.Google Scholar
  11. Anyadike, N.O. (2013). Boko Haram and National Security Challenges in Nigeria; Causes and Solutions. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 4 (5): 12–23.Google Scholar
  12. Azumah, J. (2015). Boko Haram in Retrospect. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 26 (1): 33–52.Google Scholar
  13. Brinkel, T. and Ait-Hida, S. (2012). Boko Haram and Jihad in Nigeria. Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies, 40 (2): 1–21.Google Scholar
  14. Buchanan-Clarke, S. and Lekalake, R. (2016). Extremism in Africa: Public opinion from the Sahel, Lake Chad, and the Horn. Afrobarometer Policy Paper No. 32.Google Scholar
  15. Campbell, J. (2014). United States Policy to Counter Nigeria’s Boko Haram. Council for Preventive Action. Council Special Report No. 70, November 2014.Google Scholar
  16. Chailand, G. (1987). Terrorism: From Popular Struggle to Media Spectacle. London: Saqi Books.Google Scholar
  17. Chiluwa, I. and Ajiboye, E. (2014). ‘We are After Ideals’: A Critical Analysis of Ideology in the Tweets by Boko Haram. Global Media Journal: African Edition, 8 (2): 318–346.Google Scholar
  18. CNN Library, (2018). ‘Boko Haram Fast Facts’. https://edition.cnn.com/2014/06/09/world/boko-haram-fast-facts/index.html
  19. Danjibo, N. (2009). Islamic Fundamentalism and Sectarian Violence: The ‘Maitatsine’ and ‘Boko Haram’ Crises in Northern Nigeria. Peace and Conflict Studies Paper Series, 1–21.Google Scholar
  20. Dasuki, M. (2013). The Fight against Terrorism and Piracy. Paper Presented by National Security Adviser, Mohammed Sambo Dasuki at the 10th Regional Meeting (West Africa) of the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly from 17th–19th July 2013.Google Scholar
  21. David, J. (2013). The Root Causes of Terrorism: An Appraisal of the Socio-Economic Determinants of Boko Haram Terrorists in Nigeria. Unpublished Thesis (M.A). University of KwaZulu-Natal School of Social Sciences.Google Scholar
  22. Felix, A. Ekanem, O and Olofu-Adeoye, A. (2014). Boko Haram Insurgency and the Counter-Terrorsim Policy in Nigeria. Canadian Social Science, 10 (2): 151–155.Google Scholar
  23. Institute for Economics and Peace (2015). Global Terrorism Index 2015. Measuring and Understanding the Impact of Terrorism.Google Scholar
  24. Institute for Economics and Peace (2016). Global Terrorism Index 2016. Measuring and Understanding the Impact of Terrorism.Google Scholar
  25. Isichei, E. (1987). The Maitatsine Risings in Nigeria 1980-85: A Revolt of the Disinherited. Journal of Religion in Africa, 17 (3), 194–208.Google Scholar
  26. Isine, I. (2016). ‘Reclaiming Territories Not End to Boko Haram, Experts Warn’. Premium Times. Accessed on 19th July 2016 from http://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/top-news/178925-reclaiming-territories-not-end-to-boko-haram-experts-warn.html
  27. Isyaku, A. (2013). Terrorism: A New Challenge to Nigeria Stability in the 21st Century. International Affairs and Global Strategy, 12 (1): 16–24.Google Scholar
  28. Johnmary, A. (2013). Foreign Influence on the Nigerian Terror Group. International Affairs and Global Strategy, 12: 25–31.Google Scholar
  29. Khan, S. (2013). Religious co-existence: Tolerance and contestation amongst Hindu and Muslim faith groups of Indian origin in South Africa. Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology, 4 (1–2): 149–157Google Scholar
  30. Loimeier, R. (2012). The Development of a Militant Religious Movement in Nigeria. Africa Spectrum, 47 (2/3): 137–155.Google Scholar
  31. Maiangwa, B. (2012). State Fragility and the Reign of Terror in Nigeria: A Case Study of Boko Haram Terrorism. Unpublished Thesis (MA). University of KwaZulu-Natal. School of Social Sciences.Google Scholar
  32. Marama, N. (2016). ‘Boko Haram Kills 13 takes over five Borno communities’ Accessed on June 7th 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/05/boko-haram-kills-13-takes-five-borno-communites/
  33. Megged, M. (2015). Kenya Government Counter-Terrorism Measures against al Shabaab Islamists. Accessed on 12th September 2016 from http://intelligencebriefs.com/kenya-government-counter-terrorism-measures-against-al-shabaab-islamists/
  34. Mohammed, K. (2014). The Message and Methods of Boko Haram. In: Montclos, M. ed. Boko Haram: Islamism, Politics, Security and the State in Nigeria. African Studies Centre: Leiden, 9–32.Google Scholar
  35. Ojie, A.E. and Ewhrudjakpor, C. (2009). Ethnic Diversity and Public Policies in Nigeria. Anthropologist, 11 (1): 7–14.Google Scholar
  36. Okemi, M. (2013). Boko Haram: A Religious Sect or Terrorist Organization. Global Journal of Politics and Law Research, 1 (1): 1–9.Google Scholar
  37. Olowoselu, A. Bello, A. and Onuselogu, A. (2014). Historical Analysis of Boko Haram Insurgency on Educational Management in Northern Nigeria. Global Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(10): 77–83.Google Scholar
  38. Omitola, B. (2012). Terrorism and the Nigerian Federation. African Security Review, 21 (4): 4–16.Google Scholar
  39. Onapajo, H. Uzodike, U.O. and Whetho, A. (2012). Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigeria: The International Dimension. South African Journal of International Affairs, 19 (3): 337–357.Google Scholar
  40. Onuoha, F.C. (2010). The Islamist Challenge: Nigeria’s Boko Haram Crisis Explained. African Security Review, 19 (2): 54–67.Google Scholar
  41. Onuoha, F.C. (2013). Porous Borders and Boko Haram’s Arms Smuggling Operations in Nigeria. Al Jazeera Center for Studies, 8.Google Scholar
  42. Onuoha, F.C. (2014). Boko Haram and the Evolving Salafi Jihadist Threat in Nigeria. In: Montclos, M. ed. Boko Haram: Islamism, Politics, Security and the State in Nigeria. African Studies Centre: Leiden, 158–191.Google Scholar
  43. Onuoha, J. and Ugwueze, M. (2014). United States Security Strategy and the Management of Boko Haram Crisis in Nigeria. Global Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences, 2 (3): 22–43.Google Scholar
  44. Pate, A. (2015). Boko Haram: An Assessment of Strengths, Vulnerabilities, and Policy Options. Report to the Strategic Multilayer Assessment Office, Department of Defense, and the Office of University Programs, Department of Homeland Security. START, College Park. January 2014.Google Scholar
  45. Patrick, O. and Felix, O. (2013). Effects of Boko Haram on School Attendance in Northern Nigeria. British Journal of Education, 1 (2): 1–9.Google Scholar
  46. Pérouse de Montclus, M. (2014). Boko Haram and Politics: From Insurgency to Terrorism. In: Montclos, M. ed. Boko Haram: Islamism, Politics, Security and the State in Nigeria. African Studies Centre: Leiden, 135–157.Google Scholar
  47. Popoola, I.S. (2012). Press and Terrorism in Nigeria: A Discourse on Boko Haram. Global Media Journal – African Edition, 6 (1): 43–66.Google Scholar
  48. Punch 18th July. (2016). Army Releases 250 Boko Haram Suspects. Accessed on 18th July 2016 from http://punchng.com/army-releases-250-boko-haram-suspects/
  49. Schweitzer, Y. and Shaul, S. (2003). The Globalization of Terror: The Challenge of Al-Qaida and the Response of the International Community. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  50. Shinn, D. (2011). Al Shabaab’s Foreign Threat to Somalia. Orbis, 55 (2): 203–215.Google Scholar
  51. Solomon, H. (2012). Counter-Terrorism in Nigeria. The RUSI Journal, 157 (4): 6–11.Google Scholar
  52. Somorin, Z. (2016). SIS Names New Leader for Boko Haram. Accessed on 3rd August 2016 from http://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2016/08/03/sis-names-new-leader-for-boko-haram/
  53. Suberu, R. (1996). Ethnic Minority and Governance in Nigeria. Ibadan: Spectrum Books.Google Scholar
  54. Uchehara, A.K. (2014). Peace Talks Initiatives between the Boko Haram and Nigerian Government. International Journal of Business and Social Studies, 5 (6) (1).Google Scholar
  55. Udounwa, S. (2013). Boko Haram: Developing New Strategies to Combat Terrorism in Nigeria. Unpublished Thesis (MSS). United States Army War College.Google Scholar
  56. UNHCR. (2016). Nigeria Situation – UNHCR Regional Update No. 24. 1–31 May 2016.Google Scholar
  57. United Nations. (2015). ‘Security Council Condemns Boko Haram Violence, Backs Regional Efforts to Counter Ongoing Attacks’ Accessed on September 18th 2015 from www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?News10=51513#.Vfwhpdg1hjo.
  58. Vanguard 1st April. (2016). Boko Haram Releases New Video, Say ‘No Negotiation No Surrender’. Accessed on 1st April 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/04/boko-haram-releases-new-video-says-no-negotiations-no-surrender/
  59. Vanguard 4th June (2016). ‘32 troops killed in clash with Boko Haram Fighters – Defence Ministry’ Accessed on 4th June 2016 from http://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/06/32-troops-killed-clash-boko-haram-fighters-defence-ministry/
  60. Walker, A. (2012). What is Boko Haram? United States Institute of Peace, Washington D.C, Vol. 17:1–14.Google Scholar
  61. Yusha’u, M.A., Tsafe, A.K., Babangida, S. I and Lawal, N.I. (2013). Problems and Prospects of Integrated Almajiri Education in Northern Nigeria. Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2(3): 125–134.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olumuyiwa Temitope Faluyi
    • 1
  • Sultan Khan
    • 2
  • Adeoye O. Akinola
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Social SciencesUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalPietermaritzburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.School of Social ScienceUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalDurbanSouth Africa
  3. 3.Faculty of Commerce, Administration & LawUniversity of ZululandKwaDlangezwaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations