• M. Ayaz Naseem


Naseem argues that, while Pakistan has made great progress in many areas since its inception as an independent state in 1947, the educational sector has seen few gains and many losses. While there has been little public controversy with respect to history teaching or content in Pakistan, Naseem examines the impact of Professor Aziz’s ‘Murder of History’ critique, in public, official and academic circles. The debate outlined focusses on changes to the representation of the ‘Pakistan Resolution’ of 1940, events surrounding the break-up of East and West Pakistan in 1971, the distortion of history through deliberate exclusions, the underrepresentation of minorities in the country and the depiction of a homogeneous population, as well as the omission of women, from the history of Pakistan.

Further Reading

  1. Ali, N. ‘Outrageous State, Sectarianized Citizens: Deconstructing the “Textbook Controversy” in the Northern Areas, Pakistan’. South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal 2 (2008).Google Scholar
  2. Aziz, K. K. The Murder of History: A Critique of History Textbooks Used in Pakistan. Lahore: Vanguard Publishers, 1993.Google Scholar
  3. Nayyar, A., and A. Salim, eds. The Subtle Subversion: The State of Curricula and Textbooks In Pakistan, Urdu, English, Social Studies and Civics. Islamabad: SDPI, 2003.Google Scholar
  4. Saigol, R. Knowledge and Identity: Articulation of Gender in Educational Discourse in Pakistan. Lahore, Pakistan: ASR Publications, 1996.Google Scholar
  5. Stöber, G. ‘Religious Identities Provoked: The Gilgit “Textbook Controversy” and Its Conflictual Context’. Internationale Schulbuchforschung 29 (2007), 389–411.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Ayaz Naseem
    • 1
  1. 1.Modern History and History DidacticsSapienza University of RomeRomaItaly

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