Gamaghelyan sketches the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan, and its effects on competing historical narratives in the South Caucasus that have arisen in the post-Soviet era. The education debate post-independence centred on the question of historical objectivity. The initial lack of clear ideological guidelines rapidly gave way to revisionist nationalist narratives, which framed conflicts and the Armenian Genocide ethnically and as part of the myth of Armenian statehood. The Soviet-era mode of centralised textbook production remains intact, and the Ministry of Education maintains strict guidelines concerning the presentation and teaching of historical material. While this nationalist historiography has not been left unchallenged by a younger generation, textbooks still display a binary presentation of Armenian victimhood and Ottoman, Persian and Azerbaijani belligerence.
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