Advertisement

Global Sociopolitical Transformations of the Nineteenth Century

  • Julia Zinkina
  • David Christian
  • Leonid Grinin
  • Ilya Ilyin
  • Alexey Andreev
  • Ivan Aleshkovski
  • Sergey Shulgin
  • Andrey Korotayev
Chapter
Part of the World-Systems Evolution and Global Futures book series (WSEGF)

Abstract

In the previous chapter we noted that globalization in the nineteenth century heavily contributed to the global spread of European modernity. In this chapter, we will focus on some of the most prominent political aspects of this modernity, which came to acquire a global character in the twentieth century. In the sphere of politics some of the most notable developments included the advance of constitutionalism (which came in three waves), the emergence of modern political parties, the spread of universal enfranchisement, the global “liberation of slaves,” and the appearance of the prototype of the modern social welfare state. Multidimensional, profound, and very fast (in the Big History perspective) modernization processes developed unevenly and frequently exposed the World System core countries to new types of traps, which could result in revolutions and periods of political turbulence. As globalization forced modernization processes to increasingly penetrate the semi-peripheral and peripheral parts of the World System, such turbulence spread across the world and generated episodes of sociopolitical instability in various modernizing countries throughout the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

References

  1. Baronov, D. (2000). The abolition of slavery in Brazil: The “liberation” of Africans through the emancipation of capital. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  2. Billias, G. A. (2009). American constitutionalism heard round the world, 1776–1989: A global perspective. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Broten, N. (2010). From sickness to death: The financial viability of the English friendly societies and coming of the Old Age Pensions Act, 1875–1908. Working Paper No. 135/10. Accessed July 7, 2017, from http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/27887/
  4. Bruce, M. (1968). The coming of the welfare state. New York: Schocken Books.Google Scholar
  5. Burroughs, R. (2015). Suppression of the Atlantic slave trade: Abolition from ship to shore. In R. Burroughs & R. Huzzey (Eds.), The suppression of the Atlantic slave trade: British policies, practices, and representations of naval coercion (pp. 1–16). Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Carstairs, A. M. (1980). A short history of electoral systems in Western Europe. London: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  7. Chambers, W. N. (1966). Parties and nation-building in America. In J. LaPalombara & M. Weiner (Eds.), Political parties and political development (pp. 79–106). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Chhibber, P., & Kollman, K. (2009). The formation of national party systems: Federalism and party competition in Canada, Great Britain, India, and the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Claessen, H. J. M., & Skalník, P. (Eds.). (1978). The early state. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  10. Claessen, H. J. M., & Skalník, P. (Eds.). (1981). The study of the state. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  11. Claessen, H. J. M., Hagesteijn, R. R., & van de Velde, P. (2008). The early state today. Social Evolution and History, 7(1), 245–265.Google Scholar
  12. Collier, R. B. (1999). Paths toward democracy: The working class and elites in Western Europe and South America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Collins, D. (1965). The introduction of old age pensions in Great Britain. Historical Journal, 8(2), 246–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Conrad, А. Н., & Meyer, J. R. (1964). The economics of slavery and other studies in econometric history. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  15. Curtin, P. D. (1990). The rise and fall of the plantation complex: Essays in Atlantic history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Davies, J. C. (1962). Toward a theory of revolution. American Sociological Review, 27(1), 5–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davies, J. C. (1969). Toward a theory of revolution. Studies in social movements. In B. McLaughlin (Ed.), A social psychological perspective (pp. 85–108). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  18. Dawson, W. H. (1913). Social insurance in Germany 1883–1911. London: Scribner.Google Scholar
  19. Drescher, S. (1980). Two variants of anti-slavery: Religious organization and social mobilization in Britain and France 1780-1870. In C. Bolt & S. Drescher (Eds.), Anti-slavery, religion, and reform: Essays in memory de Roger Anstey (pp. 43–66). Folkestone: Wm Dawson & Sons.Google Scholar
  20. Drescher, S. (2009). Abolition: A history of slavery and antislavery. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dwyre, D. (2010). A work in progress: Parties and democracy in the United States. In K. Lawson & J. Lanzaro (Eds.), Political parties and democracies. Vol. I: The Americas (pp. 27–48). Santa Barbara: Praeger.Google Scholar
  22. Engerman, S. L. (1971). The economic impact of the civil war. In R. W. Fogel & S. L. Engerman (Eds.), The reinterpretation of American economic history (pp. 368–379). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  23. Fogel, R. W., & Engerman, S. L. (1971). The economics of slavery. In R. W. Fogel & S. L. Engerman (Eds.), The reinterpretation of American economic history (pp. 311–341). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  24. Fogel, R. W., & Engerman, S. L. (1974). Time on the cross: The economics of American Negro Slavery. 2 vols. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.Google Scholar
  25. Frerich, J., & Frey, M. (1993). Handbuch der Geschichte der Sozialpolitik in Deutschland. Band 1: Von der vorindustriellen Zeit bis zum Ende des Dritten Reichs. Munich: R. Oldenburg.Google Scholar
  26. Gibbon, I. G. (1912). Medical benefit: A study of the experience of Germany and Denmark. Westminster, London: P.S. King & Son, Orchard House.Google Scholar
  27. Gilbert, B. B. (1965). The decay of nineteenth-century provident institutions and the coming of old age pensions in Great Britain. Economic History Review, New Series, 17(3), 551–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grinin, L. (2008). Early state, developed state, mature state: Statehood evolutionary sequence. Social Evolution and History, 7(1), 67–81.Google Scholar
  29. Grinin, L. (2012). State and sociopolitical crises in the process of modernization. Cliodynamics, 3(1), 124–157.Google Scholar
  30. Grinin, L. E., & Korotayev, A. V. (2012). Cycles, crises and traps of the modern world system. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo LKI/URSS. in Russian.Google Scholar
  31. Grinin, L. E., Issaev, L. M., & Korotayev, A. V. (2016). Revolutions and instability in the Near East (2nd ed.). Moscow: Uchitel’. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  32. Gurr, T. R. (1970). Why men rebel. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hamerow, T. D. (1989). The birth of a New Europe: State and society in the nineteenth century. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  34. Hannah, L. (1986). Inventing retirement: The development of occupational pensions in Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hershey, M. R. (2015). Party politics in America (16th ed.). New York: Pearson Education.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hicks, A., Misra, J., & Ng, T. N. (1995). The programmatic emergence of the social security state. American Sociological Review, 60(3), 329–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hobsbawm, E. J. (1987). The age of empire: 1875–1914. London: George Weidenfeld & Nicolson.Google Scholar
  38. Huntington, S. P. (1968). Political order in changing societies. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Huntington, S. P. (1991). The third wave: Democratization in the late twentieth century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  40. Jones, K. (1994). The making of social policy in Britain, 1830–1990. London: Athlone Press.Google Scholar
  41. Klyuchevsky, V. O. (1989). Works: In 9 volumes. Vol 4: A course on Russian history. Moscow: Mysl’. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  42. Korotayev, A. V., & Zinkina, J. (2011). “Egyptian revolution: A demographic structural analysis.” Entelequia. Revista Interdisciplinar, 13, 139–169.Google Scholar
  43. Korotayev, A. V., Zinkina, J., Kobzeva, S., Bogevolnov, J., Khaltourina, D., Malkov, A., et al. (2011). A trap at the escape from the trap? Demographic-structural factors of political instability in Modern Africa and West Asia. Cliodynamics, 2(2), 276–303.Google Scholar
  44. LaPalombara, J., & Weiner, M. (1966). The origin and development of political parties. In J. LaPalombara & M. Weiner (Eds.), Political parties and political development (pp. 3–42). Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McHale, V. E., & Skowronski, S. (1983a). Political parties of Europe: Albania-Norway (Vol. 1). Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  46. McHale, V. E., & Skowronski, S. (1983b). Political parties of Europe: Poland-Yugoslavia (Vol. 2). Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  47. Mironov, B. N. (2003). Social history of Russia of the empire period, 18th–early 20th century: Genesis of personality, democratic family, civil society, and rule of law (3rd ed.). Saint-Petersburg: Dmitriy Bulanin. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  48. Olson, M. (1963). Rapid growth as a destabilizing force. Journal of Economic History, 23(4), 529–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Piketty, T. (2014). Capital in the twenty-first century. Harvard: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pinkney, D. H. (1973). The French revolution of 1830. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Quirk, J. (2011). The anti-slavery project: From the slave trade to human trafficking. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Romanelli, R. (1998). Electoral systems and social structures. In R. Romanelli (Ed.), How did they become voters? The history of franchise in modern European representation (pp. 1–36). The Hague: Kluwer Law International.Google Scholar
  53. Rubinow, I. M. (1916a). Standards of health insurance. New York: Henry Holt and Company.Google Scholar
  54. Rubinow, I. M. (1916b). Social insurance with special reference to American conditions. New York: Henry Holt and Company.Google Scholar
  55. Schmitt, C., Lierse, H., Obinger, H., & Seelkopf, L. (2014). The global emergence of the welfare state: Explaining social policy legislation 1820–2013. Politics and Society, 43(4), 503–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Self, R. (2000). The evolution of the British party system 1885–1940. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  57. Sires, R. V. (1954). The beginnings of British legislation for old-age pensions. Journal of Economic History, 14(3), 229–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Skocpol, T. (1993). America’s first social security system: The expansion of benefits for civil war veterans. Political Science Quarterly, 108(1), 85–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tampke, J. (1981). Bismarck’s social legislation: A genuine breakthrough? In W. J. Mommsen & W. Mock (Eds.), The emergence of the welfare state in Britain and Germany, 1850–1950 (pp. 71–83). London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  60. Testi, A. (1998). The construction and deconstruction of the U.S. Electorate in the Age of Manhood Suffrage, 1830s–1920s. In R. Romanelli (Ed.), How did they become voters? The history of franchise in modern European representation (pp. 387–414). The Hague: Kluwer Law International.Google Scholar
  61. Thorpe, A. (2008). A history of the British labour party (3rd ed.). Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  62. Tomka, B. (2013). A social history of twentieth-century Europe. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Von Beyme, K. (1985). Political parties in western democracies. New York: St Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  64. Walvin, J. (2003). British abolitionism, 1787–1838. In M. Dorigny (Ed.), The abolitions of slavery: From the L.F. Sonthonax to Victor Schoelcher, 1793, 1794, 1848 (pp. 71–78). New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  65. Weber, M. (1978). Economy and society: An outline of interpretive sociology. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  66. Yasuba, J. (1971). The profitability and viability of plantation slavery in the United States. In R. W. Fogel & S. L. Engerman (Eds.), The reinterpretation of American economic history (pp. 362–369). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  67. Zakharova, L. G. (2011). Alexander the second and the abolition of serfdom in Russia. Moscow: ROSSPEN. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  68. Zayonchkovskiy, P. A. (1968). The abolition of serfdom in Russia (3rd ed.). Moscow: Prosveshchenie. in Russian.Google Scholar
  69. Zollner, D. (1982). Germany. In P. A. Koehler, H. F. Zacher, & M. Partington (Eds.), The evolution of social insurance, 1881–1981: Studies of Germany, France, Great Britain, Austria, and Switzerland (pp. 1–92). London: Frances Pinter.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia Zinkina
    • 1
  • David Christian
    • 2
  • Leonid Grinin
    • 3
  • Ilya Ilyin
    • 4
  • Alexey Andreev
    • 4
  • Ivan Aleshkovski
    • 5
  • Sergey Shulgin
    • 1
  • Andrey Korotayev
    • 3
  1. 1.Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public AdministrationMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Macquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Higher School of EconomicsNational Research UniversityMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  5. 5.Faculty of Global StudiesMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations