Advertisement

Proto-modern and Early Modern Globalization: How Was The Global World Born?

  • Julia Zinkina
  • David Christian
  • Leonid Grinin
  • Ilya Ilyin
  • Alexey Andreev
  • Ivan Aleshkovski
  • Sergey Shulgin
  • Andrey Korotayev
Chapter
Part of the World-Systems Evolution and Global Futures book series (WSEGF)

Abstract

This chapter is divided into two parts. First, we will view the structure and dynamics of the Afro-Eurasian world-system in the centuries preceding the Age of Discovery. We will give particular attention to the issues of this world-system’s connectivity and prerequisites to its subsequent global expansion. Second, we will view the main directions of this world-system’s expansion during the Age of Discovery, which formed the basis of early modern globalization. Then we will proceed to investigate some of the most prominent manifestations and consequences of early modern globalization, namely the intensification of existing transregional flows and interactions, as well as the emergence and sudden spread of new ones. For example, the “Columbian exchange” in flora and fauna led to a gradual globalization of the world’s staple foods, which changed the sociodemographic dynamics in most societies; globalization of pathogens led to severe cases of depopulation in some societies, dramatically changing the balance of power in the regions integrated into the now global World System; the structure of the world trade network transformed as new regions and their resources entered it; and the formation of a “global silver network” led to a sort of global “quantitative easing.” A truly global network space of flows and interactions emerged, which was to increase in density, variability, and importance in the subsequent centuries, prompting humanity to enter the era of modernity.

References

  1. Abu-Lughod, J. (1989). Before European hegemony: The world-system A.D. 1250–1350. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Attman, A. (1986). American bullion in the European world trade, 1600–1800. Göteborg: Kungl. Vetenskaps-och Vitterhets-Samhallet.Google Scholar
  3. Barrett, W. (1990). World bullion flows, 1450–1800. In J. D. Tracy (Ed.), The rise of merchant empires: Long-distance trade in the early modern world, 1350–1750 (pp. 224–254). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benedictow, O. J. (2004). The black death 1346–1353: The complete history. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press.Google Scholar
  5. Braudel, F. (1992). Civilization and capitalism, 15th-18th century: The structure of everyday life (Vol. 1). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  6. Broome, R. (1984). Arriving. McMahons Point, NSW: Fairfax, Syme & Weldon Associates.Google Scholar
  7. Chase-Dunn, C., & Hall, T. D. (1997). Rise and demise: Comparing world-systems. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  8. Christian, D. (2004). Maps of time: An introduction to big history. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  9. Crosby, A. W. (1972). The Columbian exchange: Biological and cultural consequences of 1492. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cross, H. E. (1983). South American bullion production and export, 1550–1750. In J. F. Richards (Ed.), Precious metals in the later medieval and early modern worlds (pp. 397–424). Durham: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Elliott, J. H. (2007). Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America, 1492–1830. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Fernández-Armesto, F. (2007). Pathfinders: A global history of exploration. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  13. Flynn, D. O., & Giraldez, A. (1995). Born with a ‘silver spoon:’ The origin of world trade in 1571. Journal of World History, 6(2), 201–221.Google Scholar
  14. Flynn, D. O., & Giraldez, A. (2012). Globalization began in 1571. In B. K. Gills & W. R. Thompson (Eds.), Globalization and global history (pp. 232–247). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Goldstone, J. A. (1991). Revolution and rebellion in the early modern world. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  16. Kenny, J. (1995). Before the first fleet: European discovery of Australia, 1606–1777. Kenthurst, NSW: Kangaroo Press.Google Scholar
  17. Khapoya, V. B. (2013). The African experience (4th ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Kiple, K. A. (2007). The movable feast: Ten millenia of food globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lange, R. (1999). May the people live: A history of Māori health development 1900–1920. Auckland: Auckland University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Love, R. S. (2006). Maritime exploration in the age of discovery, 1415–1800. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  21. Mazumdar, S. (2000). The impact of new world food crops on the diet and economy of China and India, 1600–1900. In R. Grew (Ed.), Food in global history (pp. 58–78). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  22. McNeill, W. H. (1976). Plagues and peoples. Garden City: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  23. McNeill, J. R., & McNeill, W. H. (2003). The human web: A bird’s-eye view of world history. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  24. Miller, G. F. (1937). History of Siberia (Vol. 1). Moscow: Academy of Sciences of the USSR. in Russian.Google Scholar
  25. Miller, G. F. (1941). History of Siberia (Vol. 2). Moscow: Academy of Sciences of the USSR. in Russian.Google Scholar
  26. Nikitin, N. I. (1987). Siberian epopee of the 17th century: Beginning of the colonization of Siberia by the Russian people. Moscow: Nauka. in Russian.Google Scholar
  27. Nikitin, N. I. (1990). Siberian colonization in the 17th century. Moscow: Prosveshchenie. in Russian.Google Scholar
  28. Okladnikov, A.P. (ed.) 1968. History of Siberia from the ancient times to our days. Vol. 3. Siberia during the epoch of capitalism. Leningrad: Nauka. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  29. Parker, G. (2013). Global crisis. War, climate change, and catastrophe in the seventeenth century. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Parry, J. H. (1982[1962]). The age of reconnaissance: Discovery, exporation and settlement, 1450–1650. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  31. Richards, J. F. (2003). The unending frontier: An environmental history of the early modern world. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  32. Shillington, K. (2012). History of Africa (3rd ed.). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Thomas, H. (2013). Conquest: Cortes, Montezuma, and the fall of old Mexico. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  34. Weber, D. J. (2014). Spanish frontier in North America. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia Zinkina
    • 1
  • David Christian
    • 2
  • Leonid Grinin
    • 3
  • Ilya Ilyin
    • 4
  • Alexey Andreev
    • 4
  • Ivan Aleshkovski
    • 5
  • Sergey Shulgin
    • 1
  • Andrey Korotayev
    • 3
  1. 1.Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public AdministrationMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Macquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Higher School of EconomicsNational Research UniversityMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  5. 5.Faculty of Global StudiesMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations