Formal Work: State Occupations and Work in the Tourist Industry

  • Daliany Jerónimo Kersh


This chapter challenges the international consensus that women were disproportionately affected by the restructuring of state jobs, using press sources to make a case that this was only initial because a concerted government effort to reincorporate women during the late 1990s reversed this trend. It explores why more women than men remained in their state professions by focusing on influential factors such as prestige, the tradition of having a profession, job security, preferable working conditions, and family wage economies. With regard to the tourism industry, Jerónimo Kersh questions the widely held perception that workers were affected by racial discrimination in this sector; instead suggesting that sexual and/or age discrimination was more prevalent.


  1. Andaya, Elise, 2014, Conceiving Cuba: Reproduction, Women, and the State in the Post-Soviet Era, Rutgers University Press, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  2. Beinish, Dorit, 1998, ‘Are Women More Successful in the Public Service than in Private Practice?’, in Shimon Shetreet (ed) Women in Law, London, Kluwer Law InternationalGoogle Scholar
  3. Cabezas, Amalia L, 2009, Economies of Desire: Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic, Philadelphia, Temple University PressGoogle Scholar
  4. Calzadilla, Iraida, 25/11/95, ‘Debaten comercialización y empleo’, Granma, p. 1Google Scholar
  5. Carmona Baez, Antonio, 2004, State Resistance to Globalisation in Cuba, London, Pluto PressGoogle Scholar
  6. Carrobello, Cariad, 23/6/95, ‘Aviso: plazas vacantes’, Bohemia, pp. 30–2Google Scholar
  7. Carrobello, Caridad, 9/12/05 ‘El monedero suena’, Bohemia, pp. 36–7Google Scholar
  8. Carrobello, Caridad, Diaz, Raimundo & Terreno, Ariel, 1/9/95, ‘Con la paja en ojo propio’, Bohemia, pp. 28–32Google Scholar
  9. ‘Carta de la FMC a Fidel’, author unknown, 3/1/92, Granma, p. 1Google Scholar
  10. Colantonio, Andrea & Potter, Robert B, 2006, Urban Tourism and Development in the Socialist State: Havana During the ‘Special Period’, Hampshire, Ashgate Publishing LtdGoogle Scholar
  11. Correoso Pérez, Lucas, 24/6/92 ‘Mas mujeres hacia el tabaco’, Granma, p. 8Google Scholar
  12. Craske, Nikki, 1999, Women and Politics in Latin America, Cambridge, Polity PressGoogle Scholar
  13. Cruz, Paco, Dec 2000, ‘Empleo femenino: realidades y perspectivas’, Mujeres Special Edition, pp. 8–9Google Scholar
  14. Davalos, Fernando, 6/11/90 ‘Nadie quedará al garete’, Bohemia, pp. 4–7Google Scholar
  15. Davalos, Fernando, 10/5/91 ‘Negocios en Cuba: ¿mejor? Imposible!’, Bohemia, pp. 13–7Google Scholar
  16. Davalos, Fernando, 4/10/91, ‘Varadero es grande’, Bohemia, pp. 11–5Google Scholar
  17. Davalos, Fernando, 3/4/92, ‘Trabajadores sobrantes y reubicaciones: nadie en desamparo’, Bohemia, pp. 30–3Google Scholar
  18. De la Fuente, Alejandro, 2001, A Nation for All; Race, Inequality and Politics in Twentieth-Century Cuba, Chapel Hill. University of North Carolina PressGoogle Scholar
  19. De Ventura, Jesús, 7/4/03, ‘Excelencia …. natural’, Granma, p. 3Google Scholar
  20. Del Carmen, María, Lueiro, Marcel & Mas, Sara, 2004 no. 2, ‘Amas de casa: ¿seres invisibles?’, Mujeres, pp. 2–5Google Scholar
  21. Díaz González, Elena, August 1995, ‘Economic Crisis: Employment and Quality of Life in Cuba’, in Valentine M. Moghadam (ed) Economic Reforms, Women’s Employment, and Social Policies, World Development Studies 4, Wider, the United Nations UniversityGoogle Scholar
  22. Diaz Rosell, Raimundo, 24/11/95, ‘Empleo y seguridad Social: No vamos a crear un estado de incertidumbre’, Bohemia, pp. 32–5Google Scholar
  23. Domínguez, Francisco, 2008, ‘The Rise of the Private Sector in Cuba’, in Alexander I. Gray and Antoni Kapcia (eds), The Changing Dynamic of Cuban Civil Society, Gainesville, University Press of FloridaGoogle Scholar
  24. Eckstein, Susan, 1994 & 2003 editions, Back from the Future: Cuba under Castro, New York, RoutledgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Edith, Dixie, 5/3/04, ‘Las mujeres sostienen mucho más’, Bohemia, p. 36Google Scholar
  26. Edith, Dixie, 13/5/05 ‘Pantalones bien puestos… a la cadera’, Bohemia, p. 36Google Scholar
  27. Edith, Dixie, Candele, Isabel, González, Lecsy y Benítez, Menfis, 9/3/01, ‘Machismo: anclado en la tradicion’, Bohemia, pp. 27–34Google Scholar
  28. ‘El tema de los temas’, author unknown, 20/4/2001, Bohemia, pp. 29–33Google Scholar
  29. Facio, Elisa, Toro-Morn, Maura and Roschelle, Anne R, 2004–2005, ‘Tourism, Gender, and Globalization: Tourism in Cuba during the Special Period’, Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems: 14, pp. 120–40Google Scholar
  30. Farber, Samuel, 2011, Cuba since the Revolution of 1959: a Critical Assessment, Chicago, Haymarket BooksGoogle Scholar
  31. Feinsilver, Julie M., 2008, ‘Cuban Medical Diplomacy Gets a Little Help From a Venezuelan Friend’, Nueva Sociedad, number 216, July–AugustGoogle Scholar
  32. Fernández, Nadine, 1999, ‘Back to the Future? Women, Race and Tourism in Cuba’ in Kempadoo, Kamala (ed.) Sun, Sex, and Gold: Tourism and Sex Work in the Caribbean, Maryland, Roman and Littlefield, pp. 81–93Google Scholar
  33. Fernández, Nadine T, 2010, Revolutionizing Romance; Interracial Couple in Contemporary Cuba, New Jersey, Rutgers University PressGoogle Scholar
  34. Foley, Julian, 2005, ‘Life on the Margins’ in Lydia Chavez (ed.), Capitalism, God, and a Good Cigar: Cuba Enters the Twenty-First Century, Durham, Duke University PressGoogle Scholar
  35. Härkönen, Heidi, 2016, Kinship, Love, and Life Cycle in Contemporary Havana, Cuba: To Not Die Alone, New York, Palgrave MacmillanCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. ‘Inaugurado el hotel Meliá las Américas en Varadero’, author unknown, 30/7/94, Granma, p. 1Google Scholar
  37. Jiménez García, Eduardo, 3/12/99, ‘Los dilemas del salario’, Bohemia, p. 36Google Scholar
  38. Jiménez García, Eduardo, 3/5/02, ‘Economía sana con seres humanos sanos’, Bohemia, pp. 24–30Google Scholar
  39. Lutjens, Sheryl L, 1995, ‘Reading between the Lines: Women, the State, and Rectification in Cuba’, Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 2, (Spring) pp. 100–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Martínez, Silvia, 31/8/94, ‘Nueva legislación laboral más ajustada a nuestra realidad económica’, Granma, p. 2Google Scholar
  41. Martínez, Silvia, 2/11/96 ‘Apelen a las administraciones para correcta política de empleo’, Granma, p. 2Google Scholar
  42. Martínez, Silvia, 8/3/97, ‘Derechos preservados’, Granma, p. 3Google Scholar
  43. Mas, Sara, 14/6/91, ‘Proyectos, ideas y problemas de mujeres’, Granma, p. 3Google Scholar
  44. Mas, Sara, 28/2/1995, ‘Anticipos de un congreso femenino’, Granma, p. 3Google Scholar
  45. Mas, Sara, 1/5/99 ‘Mujeres entre avances y pronósticos de empleo’, Granma, p. 3Google Scholar
  46. Mas, Sara, 1/3/02, ‘La batalla por el avance de la mujer es toda la sociedad’, Granma, p. 2Google Scholar
  47. Mayoral, María Julia 6/11/93 ‘Alternativas ante las dificultades’, Granma, p. 2Google Scholar
  48. Mayoral, María Julia, 9/3/2000, ‘La igualdad no se consigue sin pelea’, Granma, p. 3Google Scholar
  49. Mayoral, María Julia, 20/12/02 ‘Continuará el país creando nuevas fuentes de empleo’, Granma, p. 1Google Scholar
  50. McMullin, Ann and Berger, Ellie D., 2006, ‘The Case of Unemployed Older Workers’, in Toni M. Calasanti and Kathleen F. Slevin (eds.), Age Matters: Re-Aligning Feminist Thinking, New York, RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  51. Mesa-Lago, Carmelo, 2000, Market, Socialist, and Mixed Economies: Comparative Policy and Performance: Chile, Cuba, and Costa Rica, Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University PressGoogle Scholar
  52. Miranda, Caridad, 19/8/94, ‘El tiempo apremia’, Bohemia, p. 33Google Scholar
  53. Montes de Oca, Eduardo, 2/7/99, ‘Violencia contra la mujer: ¿frágil costilla de Adán?’, Bohemia, pp. 15–8Google Scholar
  54. ‘No es cuestión de pantalones’, author unknown, 25/2/2000, Bohemia, pp. 26–9Google Scholar
  55. ‘Nuestra revolución no puede ni venderse ni entregarse’, author unknown, 16/7/93, Bohemia, pp. 38–49Google Scholar
  56. O’Conner, Erin E., 2014, Mothers Making Latin America: Gender, Households, and Politics Since 1825, Chichester, John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  57. Padula, Alfred and Smith, Lois, 1985, ‘Women in Socialist Cuba,’ in Halebsky, Sandor & Kirk, John M (eds), Cuba: Twenty Five Years of Revolution 1959 to 1984, Westport, Greenwood Publishing LtdGoogle Scholar
  58. Pearson, Ruth, 1998, Economic Area Reform and Women’s Employment in Cuba, Hatfield, University of HertfordshireGoogle Scholar
  59. Pérez Izquierdo, Victoria, 2002, ‘Impacto del Período Especial en la Vida Cotidiana de la Mujer Cubana, en la Década de los Años 90’- prepared for delivery at the International Tribunal of Cuban Women Against the Embargo, Convention Palace, Havana, 21st March—
  60. Pérez Jr, Louis A, 2011, Cuba; Between Reform and Revolution, Oxford, Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  61. Phillips, Emma F, 2007, ‘Maybe Tomorrow I’ll Turn Capitalist’: Cuentapropismo in a Workers’ State, Law & Society Review, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Jun., 2007), pp. 305–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. ‘Piedras de un rio que suena’, author unknown, 4/5/01, Bohemia, pp. 30–3Google Scholar
  63. Portelli, Alessandro, 1997, The Battle of Valle Giulia: Oral History and the Art of Dialogue, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin PressGoogle Scholar
  64. Pozo, Alberto, 10/1/92 ‘Turismo: razones de peso’, Bohemia, pp. 38–40Google Scholar
  65. Pozo, Alberto, 18/3/94, ‘Desde el hogar’, Bohemia, p. 36Google Scholar
  66. Rassi, Reynold, 22/2/03, ‘Satisfactorio trabajo de la FMC en el 2002’, Granma, p. 2Google Scholar
  67. Ravelo, Aloyma, Suarez, Marilys & Campos, Iraida, 2002—no. 1 ‘Dilemas de vivir en familia’, Mujeres en Campana, pp. 4–7Google Scholar
  68. Rodríguez Calderón, Mirta, 3/3/95 ‘Ausencia de una presencia’, Granma, pp. 4–7Google Scholar
  69. Rodríguez Calderón, Mirta, 1/3/96, ‘Coordenadas en el porvenir’, Bohemia, pp. 17–9Google Scholar
  70. Rodríguez Molina, Diego, 9/10/98, ‘Perfeccionan política laboral en el turismo’, Granma, p. 2Google Scholar
  71. Rodríguez, Osvaldo, 24/6/94, ‘¿Por quien me sacarifico?’, Bohemia, p. 41Google Scholar
  72. Rosenberg Weinreb, Amelia, 2009, Cuba in the Shadow of Change: Daily Life in the Twilight of the Revolution, Gainesville, University Press of FloridaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rubio, Vladia, Carro, Caridad y Chappi, Tania, 17/5/02, ‘Un día de cuatro madres: detrás de la postal’, Bohemia, pp. 24–32Google Scholar
  74. Rubio, Vladia, Carrobello, Caridad & Edith, Dixie, 21/2/03, ‘Sudar la camisa’, Bohemia, pp. 24–32Google Scholar
  75. Safa, Helen, 2009, ‘Hierarchies and Household Change in Post Revolutionary Cuba’, Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 36, No. 1, Cuba: Interpreting a Half-Century of Revolution and Resistance, Part 1 (January), pp. 42–52Google Scholar
  76. Sarney, Isaac, 2004, Cuba: A Revolution in Motion, Fernwood, Nova ScotiaGoogle Scholar
  77. Schwartz, Rosalie, 1997, Pleasure Island: Tourism and Temptation in Cuba, Lincoln, University of Nebraska PressGoogle Scholar
  78. Sexto, Luis, 27/5/94 ‘Educación: éxodo de los maestros’, Bohemia, pp. 26–9Google Scholar
  79. Sexto, Luis, 9/6/95, ‘Ética de la solidaridad .v. ética del egoísmo’, Bohemia, pp. 4–8Google Scholar
  80. Shayne, Julie D, 2004, The Revolution Question: Feminisms in El Salvador, Chile and Cuba, New Jersey, Rutgers University PressGoogle Scholar
  81. Tesoro, Susana, 27/7/01, ‘Turismo y sociedad’, Bohemia, p. 26Google Scholar
  82. Tilly, Louise A., Scott, J.W. and Cohen, Maríam, 1976, Women’s Work and European Fertility Patterns, Journal of Interdisciplinary History 6: 447–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Toro-Morn, Maura I, Roschelle, Anne R, and Facio, Elisa, 2002, ‘Gender, Work, and Family in Cuba: The Challenges of the Special Period’, Journal of Developing Societies, volume 18: 2–3, June, pp. 32–58Google Scholar
  84. Trujillo de la Paz, Idania, 19/7/96, ‘Jóvenes en los ‘90: ni santos, ni perdidos’, Bohemia, pp. 4–7Google Scholar
  85. Trujillo de la Paz, Idania, 8/10/99 ‘Déficit de maestros: Al toro por los cuernos’, Bohemia, pp. 27–9Google Scholar
  86. Uriarte, Miren, 2008, ‘Social Impact of the Economic Measures’, in Phillip Brenner, Marguerite Rose Jimenez, John M Kirk, & William M LeoGrande (eds), A Contemporary Cuba Reader: Reinventing the Revolution, Maryland, Rowman and Littlefield, p. 286Google Scholar
  87. Valdes Paz, Juan, 2005, ‘Cuba in the Special Period: from Equality to Equity’, in Tulchin, Joseph H, Bobea, Lilian, Espina Prieto, Mayara P, Hernández, Rafael and Bryan, Elizabeth (eds), Changes in Cuban Society Since the Nineties, Washington, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, pp. 103–25Google Scholar
  88. Webb, Janette, 2010, ‘Gender and the Post-Industrial Shift’, in Jacqueline L. Scott, Rosemary Crompton, Clare Lyonett (eds) Gender Inequalities in the 21st Century: New Barriers and Continuing Constraints, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing LtdGoogle Scholar
  89. Wonders, Nancy A. and Michalowski, Raymond, 2001 (November), Bodies, Borders, and Sex Tourism in a Globalized World: A Tale of Two Cities—Amsterdam and Havana, Social Problems—Vol. 48, No. 4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zagha, Roberto & Nankani, Gobind T., 2005, Economic Growth in the 1990s: Learning from a Decade of Reform, Washington D.C., The World BankGoogle Scholar
  91. Zulueta, Regla, 2002—no. 3, ‘Romper una tradición: cuesta trabajo’, Mujeres, pp. 2–6Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daliany Jerónimo Kersh
    • 1
  1. 1.Richmond, The American International UniversityLondonUK

Personalised recommendations