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Impact of Nanomaterials on Plant Physiology and Functions

  • Rubbel Singla
  • Avnesh Kumari
  • Sudesh Kumar Yadav
Chapter

Abstract

Nanotechnology has opened up novel applications in the field of biotechnology and crop production, as nanomaterials possess unique features such as high surface area and high reactivity as compared to their bulk counterparts. In the recent era, scientists are developing different kinds of nanoparticles (NPs) like metal-based (gold, silver, silicon dioxide, zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, etc.) and carbon-based nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes and fullerenes) to play a great role in plant growth and development. Nanomaterials can behave as “magic bullets” to deliver chemicals or genes (required for proper plant functioning) at the target plant organelles with high specificity in a controlled manner. Exposure of nanomaterials to plants induce many morphological and physiological changes based on several parameters, viz., properties of NPs, chemical composition, surface coating, size, dosage, time of exposure, and many more. However, a complete knowledge regarding the dynamics of NPs interaction with plants and their effect on growth and development is still unclear. The present chapter highlights the key potentials of NPs in plant growth and development in terms of root and shoot growth, seed germination, photosynthesis, and transpiration and summarizes the mechanism of NPs interactions with plants and plant parts. The effect of nanomaterials toxicity on plant species is also discussed.

Keywords

Nanoparticles Nanoparticle-plant interactions Nanoparticle uptake mechanism Plant growth Phytotoxicity Oxidative stress 

Notes

Acknowledgments

RS is thankful to UGC for awarding a Senior Research Fellowship. Financial support from the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India, and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, is also acknowledged.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rubbel Singla
    • 1
  • Avnesh Kumari
    • 1
  • Sudesh Kumar Yadav
    • 2
  1. 1.Biotechnology DivisionCSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource TechnologyPalampurIndia
  2. 2.Center of Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing (CIAB)MohaliIndia

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