Advertisement

Private Wealth and Happiness

A Research Synthesis Using an Online Findings-Archive
  • Antje JantschEmail author
  • Ruut Veenhoven
Chapter
Part of the Social Indicators Research Series book series (SINS, volume 76)

Abstract

There is a lot of research on the relationship between income and happiness, but little research into the relationship between wealth and happiness. Knowledge about the effects of wealth on happiness is required for informed decision making in matters of saving and consumption. In order to answer the questions of how and to what extent wealth relates to happiness, we take stock of the available research findings on this issue, covering 161 research findings observed in 113 studies. We use a new method of research synthesis, in which research findings are described in a comparable format and entered in an online ‘findings archive’, the World Database of Happiness, to which links are made from this text. This technique allows a condensed presentation of research findings, while providing readers access to full details. We found mostly positive relationships between assets and happiness, and negative relationships between debt and happiness. The size of the relationships is small, variations in wealth explain typically less than 1% of the variation in individual happiness. The correlations are slightly reduced when controlled for income and socio-demographic factors. The few longitudinal studies suggest a causal effect of wealth on happiness. We found little differences across methods used and populations studied. Together, the available research findings imply that building wealth will typically add to your happiness, though not by very much.

Keywords

Life satisfaction Consumption Savings Assets Debt Wealth Research synthesis 

References9

  1. Anand, P., Hunter, G., & Smith, R. (2005). Capabilities and well-being. Evidence based on the Sen–Nussbaum approach to welfare. Social Indicators Research, 74, 9–55. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=22840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Becchetti, L., & Conzo, P. (2010). Microfinance and happiness. AICCON Working Papers, 69–2010, Associazione Italiana per la Cultura della Cooperazione e del Non Profit. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=23373.
  3. Becchetti, L., & Pisani, F. (2014). Family economic well-being, and (class) relative wealth. An empirical analysis of life satisfaction of secondary school students in three Italian cities. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15, 503–525. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=23362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Becchetti, L., Corrado, L., & Samà, P. (2012). Inside the life satisfaction Blackbox. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=25874.
  5. Beiser, M. (1974). Components and correlates of mental well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 320–327. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berlin, M., & Kaunitz, N. (2015). Beyond income: The importance for life satisfaction of having access to a cash margin. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16, 1557–1573. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=27944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boelhouwer, J., & Stoop, I. (1999). Measuring well-being in the Netherlands. Social Indicators Research, 48, 51–75. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=7171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradburn, N. M. (1969). The structure of psychological well-being. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  9. Brickman, P., Coates, D., & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1978). Lottery winners and accident victims: Is happiness relative? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 917–927. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=25672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, S., & Gray, D. (2016). Household finances and well-being in Australia. An empirical analysis of comparison effects. Journal of Economic Psychology, 53, 17–36. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=27897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, S., Taylor, K., & Wheatley Price, S. (2005). Debt and distress: Evaluating the psychological cost of credit. Journal of Economic Psychology, 26, 642–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Browning, M., & Leth-Petersen, S. (2003). Imputing consumption from income and wealth information. The Economic Journal, 113(488), F282–F301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bucchianeri, G. (2011). The American dream or the American delusion? The private and external benefits of homeownership for women. SSRN. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=22924.
  14. Calvo, E., Haverstick, K., & Sass, S. (2007). What makes retirees happier. A gradual or ‘cold turkey’ retirement? SSRN. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=19696
  15. Cheng, Z., Smyth, R., & Wang, H. (2013). Housing and subjective wellbeing in urban China. Discussion Paper, No. 39, Monash University. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=23353
  16. Christoph, B. (2010). The relation between life satisfaction and the material situation. A re-evaluation using alternative measures. Social Indicators Research, 98, 475–499. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=28059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clark, A., & Oswald, A. (1996). Satisfaction and comparison income. Journal of Public Economics, 61, 359–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cornelisse-Vermaat, J. (2005). Household production, health, and happiness: A comparison of the native Dutch and non-western immigrants in the Netherlands. Thesis, University of Wageningen. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=16786.
  19. Cuesta, M., & Budría, S. (2014). Deprivation and subjective well-being. Evidence from panel data. Review of Income and Wealth, 60, 655–682. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=23189.Google Scholar
  20. Cummins, R. A., Davern, M., Eckersley, R., Hunter, B., Lo, S., & Okerstrom, E. (2004a). Unity wellbeing index. The wellbeing of Australians. Effects of household Debt. Report, No. 9.0, Australian Centre on Quality of Life, Melbourne. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=9149.
  21. Cummins, R. A., Eckersley, R., Lo, S., Okerstrom, E. (2004b). Australian Unity Wellbeing Index. Part A: The Report. The Wellbeing of Australians. Personal Financial Debt. Report, No. 11.0, Australian Centre on Quality of Life, Melbourne. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=9458.
  22. D’Ambrosio, C., & Frick, J. (2012). Individual wellbeing in a dynamic perspective. Economica, 79, 284–302. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=25811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. de Moura, M., & da Silveira Bueno, R. (2013). Land title program in Brazil. Are there any changes to happiness? The Journal of Socio-Economics, 45, 196–203. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=23637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dean, L. R., Carroll, J. S., & Yang, C. (2007). Materialism, perceived financial problems, and marital satisfaction. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 35, 260–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dew, J. (2008). Debt change and marital satisfaction change in recently married couples. Family Relations, 57(1), 60–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Di Tella, R., MacCulloch, R., & Oswald, A. (2001). Preferences over inflation and unemployment: Evidence from surveys of happiness. The American Economic Review, 91, 335–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Diener, E., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2002). Will money increase subjective well-being? Social Indicators Research, 57, 119–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dolan, P., Peasgood, T., & White, M. (2008). Do we really know what makes us happy? A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective well-being. Journal of Economic Psychology, 29, 94–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Duarte, A., Garcia, C., Giannarakis, G., Limão, S., Polydoropoulou, A., & Litinas, N. (2010). New approaches in transportation planning. Happiness and transport economics. Netnomics, 11, 5–32. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=23303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Duffy, B. (2004). Life satisfaction and trust in other people. London: MORI Social Research Institute. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=17910.Google Scholar
  31. Dwyer, R. E., McCloud, L., & Hodson, R. (2011). Youth debt, mastery, and self-esteem. Class-stratified effects of indebtedness on self-concept. Social Indicators Research, 40(3), 727–741.Google Scholar
  32. Easterlin, R. (1995). Will raising the incomes of all increase the happiness of all? Journal of Economic Behaviour & Organization, 27, 35–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Evans, S., & Huxley, P. (2005). Adaptation, response-shift and quality of life ratings in mentally well and unwell groups. Quality of Life Research, 14, 1719–1732. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=13332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Evans, S., Banerjee, S., Leese, M., & Huxley, P. (2007). The impact of mental illness on quality of life. A comparison of severe mental illness, common mental disorder and healthy population samples. Quality of Life Research, 16, 17–29. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=15049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Frank, R. H. (2005). Does absolute income matter? In L. BRUNI & P. PORTA (Eds.), Economics and happiness: Framing the analysis (pp. 65–90). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fredrickson, B. (2004). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 359, 1367–1377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frey, B., & Stutzer, A. (2002). What can economists learn from happiness research? Journal of Economic Literature, 40, 402–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Frick, J. R., & Krell, K. (2010). Measuring income in household panel surveys for Germany: A comparison of EU-SILC and SOEP. Berlin.Google Scholar
  39. Frick, J., Grabka, M., & Groh-Samberg, O. (2012). Dealing with incomplete household panel data in inequality research. Sociological Methods & Research, 41, 89–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gagliardi, C., Marcellini, F., Papa, R., Giuli, C., & Mollenkopf, H. (2010). Associations of personal and mobility resources with subjective well-being among older adults in Italy and Germany. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 50, 42–47. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=23900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gardner, J. & Oswald, A. J. (2001). Does money buy happiness? A longitudinal study using data on windfalls, Paper University of Warwick, UK.Google Scholar
  42. Gaymu, J., & Springer, S. (2010). Living conditions and life satisfaction of older Europeans living alone. A gender and cross-country analysis. Ageing and Society, 30, 1153–1175. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=20011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gray, D. (2014). Financial concerns and overall life satisfaction: A joint modelling approach. Sheffield Economic Research Paper Series, No. 2014008, The University of Sheffield. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=22944.
  44. Guven, C. (2009). Weather and financial risk-taking: Is happiness the channel? SOEP Papers, No. 218, DIW Berlin. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=23054.
  45. Hagerty, M. R., & Veenhoven, R. (2003). Wealth and happiness revisited–growing national income does go with greater happiness. Social Indicators Research, 64, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Haisken-DeNew, J., & Sinning, M. (2010). Social deprivation of immigrants in Germany. Review of Income and Wealth, 56, 715–733. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=21549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Halman, L., DeMoor, R., Heunks, F., & Zanders, H. (1987). Traditie, Secularisatie en Individualisering. (Tradition, Secularization and Individualisation- a Study into the Values of the Dutch within a European Context). Tilburg University Press, Tilburg. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=23451.
  48. Hartog, J., & Oosterbeek, H. (1998). Health, wealth and happiness. Why pursue a higher education? Economics of Education Review, 17, 245–256. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=15608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Headey, B., & Wooden, M. (2004). The effects of wealth and income on subjective well-being and ill-being. Economic Record, 80, S24–S33. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=27853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Headey, B., Muffels, R., & Wooden, M. (2008). Money does not buy happiness. Or does it? A reassessment based on the combined effects of wealth, income and consumption. Social Indicators Research, 87, 65–82. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=9676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Healy, T. (2005). In each other’s shadow. What has been the impact of human and social capital on life satisfaction in Ireland? Thesis, National University of Ireland, Dublin. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=19200.
  52. Hinks, T., & Davies, S. (2008). Life satisfaction in Malawi and the importance of relative consumption, polygamy and religion. Journal of International Development, 20, 888–904. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=22685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Howell, C., Howell, R., & Schwabe, K. (2006). Does wealth enhance life satisfaction for people who are materially deprived? Exploring the association among the Orang asli of Peninsular Malaysia. Social Indicators Research, 76, 499–524. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=11640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kainulainen, S. (1998). Elämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa: Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes. Kuopio University Publications. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=7207.
  55. Kainulainen, S., Saari, J., & Veenhoven, R. (2018). Life-satisfaction is more a matter of feeling well than having what you want: Tests of Veenhoven’s theory. International Journal of Happiness and Development, 4(3), 209–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kalckreuth, U., Eisele, M., Le Blanc, J., Schmidt, T., & Zhu, J. (2012). The PHF: A comprehensive panel survey on household finances and wealth in Germany. Frankfurt am Main: Dt. Bundesbank.Google Scholar
  57. Kim, S., Sargent-Cox, K., French, D., Kendig, H., & Anstey, K. (2012). Cross-national insights into the relationship between wealth and wellbeing. A comparison between Australia, the United States of America and South Korea. Ageing and Society, 32, 41–59. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=28020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Knight, J., & Gunatilaka, R. (2010). Great expectations? The subjective well-being of rural–urban migrants in China. World Development, 38, 113–124. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=20808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Knight, J., Gunatilaka, R. (2014): Memory and anticipation: new empirical support for an old theory of the utility function. Discussion Paper Series, No. 721, University of Oxford, Department of Economics, Oxford. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=28025.
  60. Knight, J., Song, L., & Gunatilaka, R. (2009). Subjective well-being and its determinants in rural China. China Economic Review, 20, 635–649. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=27960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Koczan, Z. (2013). Does integration increase life satisfaction? Cambridge Working Papers in Economics, No. 1314, University of Cambridge. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=20886.
  62. Kuhn, P., Kooreman, P., Soetevent, A., & Kapteyn, A. (2011). The effects of lottery prizes on winners and their neighbours: Evidence from the Dutch postcode lottery. American Economic Review, 101, 2226–2247. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=22277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kusago, T. (2007). Rethinking of economic growth and life satisfaction in Post-Wwii Japan – A fresh approach. Social Indicators Research, 81, 79–102. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=23393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Landiyanto, E., Ling, J., Puspitasari, M., & Irianti, S. (2011). Wealth and happiness: Empirical evidence from Indonesia. Chulalongkorn Journal of Economics, 23, 1–17. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=26542.Google Scholar
  65. Liu, Z., & Shang, Q. (2012). Individual well-being in urban China. The role of income expectations. China Economic Review, 23, 833–849. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=28058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Luttmer, E. (2005). Neighbours as negatives: Relative earnings and well-being. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120, 963–1002. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=25110.Google Scholar
  67. Melbourne Institue of Applied Economic and Social Research. (2003). Household, income and labour dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Annual Report 2003. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=11710.
  68. Michalos, A., & Zumbo, B. (2000). Criminal victimization and the quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 50, 245–295. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=17513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mollenkopf, H., & Kaspar, R. (2005). Ageing in rural areas of East and West Germany. Increasing similarities and remaining differences. European Journal of Ageing, 2, 120–130. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=12433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Morawetz, D., Atia, E., Bin-Nun, G., Felous, L., Gariplerden, Y., Harris, E., et al. (1977). Income distribution and self-rated happiness. Some Empirical Evidence. The Economic Journal, 87, 511. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=8008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Morduch, J. (1995). Income smoothing and consumption smoothing. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9, 103–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Obućina, O. (2013). The patterns of satisfaction among immigrants in Germany. Social Indicators Research, 113, 1105–1127. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=20951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Office for National Statistics. (2015). Relationship between wealth, income and personal well-being, July 2011 to June 2012.Google Scholar
  74. Okulicz-Kozaryn, A., Nash, T., & Tursi, N. (2015). Luxury car owners are not happier than frugal car owners. International Review of Economics, 62, 121–141. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=23739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Oswald, A., & Winkelmann, R. (2008). Delay and deservingness after winning the lottery. Socioeconomic Institute University of Zurich Working Paper, No. 0815. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=24626.
  76. Rohe, W., & Basolo, V. (2016). Long-term effects of homeownership on the self-perceptions and social interaction of low-income persons. Environment and Behaviour, 29, 793–819. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=23278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rohe, W., & Stegman, M. A. (1994). The effects of homeownership. On the self-esteem, perceived control and life satisfaction of low-income people. Journal of the American Planning Association, 60, 173–184. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=22244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rossi, P., & Weber, E. (1996). The social benefits of homeownership: Empirical evidence from national surveys. Housing Policy Debate, 7, 1–35. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=23271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sabatini, F. (2011). Can a click buy a little happiness? The impact of business-to-consumer e-commerce on subjective well-being. EERI Research Paper Series, 12/2011. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=23094.
  80. Schulz, W., Költringer, R., Norden, G., & Tüchler, H. (1985). Lebensqualität in Österreich. Report Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, Wien. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=4833.
  81. Schyns, P. (2002). Wealth of nations, individual income and life satisfaction in 42 Countries: A multilevel approach. Social Indicators Research, 60, 5–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shields, M., Wheatley Price, S., & Wooden, M. (2009). Life satisfaction and the economic and social characteristics of neighbourhoods. Journal of Population Economics, 22, 421–443. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=21104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shin, D. (1986). Education and the quality of life in Korea and the United States: A cross-cultural perspective. Public Opinion Quarterly, 50, 360–370. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=4103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Shin, D., & Johnson, D. (1978). Avowed happiness as an overall assessment of the quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 5, 475–492. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shu, X., & Zhu, Y. (2009). The quality of life in China. Social Indicators Research, 92, 191–225. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=17175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Smith, S., & Razzell, P. (1975). The pool winners. London: Caliban Books. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=7165.Google Scholar
  87. Suter, C. (2014). Debt. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of quality of life and well-being research (pp. 1465–1469). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tay, L., Batz, C., Parrigon, S., & Kuykendall, L. (2017). Debt and subjective well-being. The other side of the income-happiness coin. Journal of Happiness Studies, 18, 903–937. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=27974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tiefenbach, T., & Kohlbacher, F. (2013). Happiness from the viewpoint of economics: Findings from recent survey data in Japan. German Institute for Japanese Studies (DIJ), Business & Economics Section, No. 1301. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=23755.
  90. Tunney, R. S. (2006). The effects of winning the lottery on happiness, life satisfaction, and mood. A report for Camelot Group. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=11357.
  91. VanBeuningen, J., & Moonen, L. (2013). Gezondheid Belangrijker voor Geluk dan Leefstijl. (Health More Important for Happiness then Lifestyle) Bevolkingstrends, Statistics Netherlands (CBS), April 2013, the Hague, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  92. Veenhoven, R. (1984). Conditions of happiness. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Veenhoven, R. (2000). The four qualities of life. Ordering concepts and measures of the good life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1, 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Veenhoven, R. (2008). Healthy happiness: Effects of happiness on physical health and the consequences for preventive health care. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 449–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Veenhoven, R. (2017). Measures of happiness: Which to choose? In G. Brulé & F. Maggino (Eds.), Metrics of well-being (pp. 65–84). Dordrecht: Springer. https://personal.eur.nl/veenhoven/Pub2010s/2017g-full.pdf.Google Scholar
  96. Veenhoven, R. (2018a). World Database of Happiness. Archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands, Available at https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl
  97. Veenhoven, R. (2018b). Bibliography of happiness. World Database of Happiness, Erasmus University Rotterdam. http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/bib_fp.php. Accessed 2018/05/01.
  98. Veenhoven, R. (2018c). Findings on happiness and possessions. World Database of Happiness. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=P10. Accessed 2018/05/01.
  99. Veenhoven, R. (2018d). Notation of findings. World Database of Happiness, introductory text to the collection of correlational findings. Available at https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/introtexts/introcor3.pdf
  100. Veenhoven, R. (2018e). Happiness research: Past and future. Senshu Social Well-Being Review, 4, 65–74.Google Scholar
  101. Veenhoven, R. (2018f). Measures of happiness. World Database of Happiness, Erasmus University Rotterdam. http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_quer/hqi_fp.htm. Accessed 2018/05/01.
  102. Veenhoven, R. (2018g). World database of happiness: Archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life. In H. Welsch, D. Maddison, & R. Katrin (Eds.), Handbook of wellbeing, happiness and the environment. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. In press.Google Scholar
  103. Veenhoven, R. (2018h). Findings on happiness and lottery playing. World Database of Happiness, Assessed May 1 2018 at https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_sub.php?sid=2885
  104. Ventegodt, S. (1995). Liskvalitet I Danmark: (Quality of life in Denmark). Results from a population survey. Forskningscentrets Forlag, Copenhagen. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=7339.
  105. Ventegodt, S. (1996). Liskvalitet hos 4500 31–33-arige (The Quality of Life of 4500 31–33-Years-Olds). Forskningscentrets Forlag, Copenhagen. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=7972.
  106. Wagner, G., Frick, J., & Schupp, J. (2007). The German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) – Scope, evolution and enhancements (SOEP Paper, No. 1). Berlin: DIW Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wang, H., Cheng, Z., & Smyth, R. (2017). Consumption and happiness. The Journal of Development Studies, 20, 1–17. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=27593.Google Scholar
  108. Winkelmann, L., & Winkelmann, R. (1998). Why are the unemployed so unhappy? Evidence from panel data. Economica, 65, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wunder, C. (2009). Adaptation to income over time: A weak point of subjective well-being. Schmollers Jahrbuch: Journal of Applied Social Science Studies, 129, 269–281. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=25440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhang, J. (2012). Households’ multidimensional mobilities over life course and QOL: A case study in Japan. Presented paper, ISQOLS conference. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=23115.
  111. Zumbro, T. (2014). The relationship between homeownership and life satisfaction in Germany. Housing Studies, 29, 319–338. https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/desc_cor.php?sssid=22224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Martin Luther University Halle-WittenbergHalleGermany
  2. 2.Erasmus Happiness Economic Research Organisation EHERO, Erasmus University RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.North-West University in South Africa (Optentia Research Programm)PotchefstroomSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations