Conclusions: Culture, Ownership and Class

  • Chris PorterEmail author
Part of the Football Research in an Enlarged Europe book series (FREE)


This concluding chapter critically assesses the successes and limitations to date of supporter ownership in English football, taking in the range of case studies and dynamic social, political, economic and cultural contexts covered in this book. The overall aim is not to assign blame for any weaknesses or failures, but to learn valuable lessons from which the supporter ownership movement, in whatever form it takes, can go from strength to strength.


  1. Brady, R. (2006). An Undividable Glow. Manchester: Robert Brady.Google Scholar
  2. Cleland, J. (2017). The English Premier League in a Global Context. In R. Elliott (Ed.), The English Premier League: A Socio-Cultural Analysis. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Cleland, J., Doidge, M., Millward, P., & Widdop, P. (2018). Collective Action and Football Fandom: A Relational Sociological Approach. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Conn, D. (2018, May 2). It Is an Absolute Travesty’: Chesterfield’s Fall from Football League. The Guardian.
  5. Dilworth, D. (2018, August 31). City Football Group: Globalisation and Conflicts of Interest. Supporters Direct.
  6. Fillis, I., & Mackay, C. (2014). Moving Beyond Fan Typologies: The Impact of Social Integration on Team Loyalty in Football. Journal of Marketing Management, 30(3–4), 334–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Garcia, B., & Zheng, J. (2017). Football and Supporter Activism in Europe: Whose Game Is It? Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  8. Kennedy, P. (2017). Vampire Capitalism: Fractured Societies and Alternative Futures. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Malcolm, D. (2000). Football Business and Football Communities in the Twenty-First Century. Soccer & Society, 1(3), 102–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Marx, K. (1977). Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844. In D. McLellan (Ed.), Karl Marx: Selected Writings. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Millward, P., & Poulton, G. (2014). Football Fandom, Mobilization and Herbert Blumer: A Social Movement Analysis of F.C. United of Manchester. Sociology of Sport Journal, 31, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. O’Neill, J.-P. (2017). Red Rebels: The Glazers and the FC Revolution. London: Yellow Jersey Press.Google Scholar
  13. Sandvoss, C. (2003). A Game of Two Halves: Football, Television and Globalization. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Supporters Direct. (2013). Supporter Share Ownership: Recommendations on How to Increase Supporter Ownership in Football. London: Supporters Direct.Google Scholar
  15. Watkins, T. (2000). Cherries in the Black: AFC Bournemouth’s Journey from Bankruptcy to Rude Health Under Supporter Leadership. Soccer & Society, 1(3), 57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Webber, D. (2017). The Great Transformation of the English Game: Karl Polanyi and the Double Movement ‘Against Modern Football’. In B. Garcia & J. Zheng (Eds.), Football and Supporter Activism in Europe: Whose Game Is It? Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Whitehead, D. (2006). AFC Bournemouth—Community Club… or Con? In D. Brimson (Ed.), Rebellion: The Inside Story of Football’s Protest Movement. London: John Blake.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Manchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations