Class, Consumption and Exclusion by Design

  • Chris PorterEmail author
Part of the Football Research in an Enlarged Europe book series (FREE)


Chapter 3 begins by critically examining a pivotal strategy document that underscored the formation of the Premier League: the English Football Association’s 1991 ‘Blueprint for the Future of Football’, that set out a strategy for reshaping English football based on its analysis of broader social trends and projections. The extent to which the transformations that followed throughout the 1990s and into the twenty-first century represent a significant shift in the make-up and character of the English football crowd along social class lines is a core thread of argument throughout. Whether or not such a shift might be regarded as an outcome of industry- or culture-specific social engineering, and/or as football merely ‘catching up’, or being swept along, with broader social processes outside of its control, remains a key consideration. Undoubtedly, however, football supporters in England did over this time experience transformations in the ways that they connected with their clubs and with the game, as well as with each other. How fans began to articulate and respond to these changes forms the focus of the latter half of the chapter.


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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Manchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK

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