Global Climate Change Adaptation Measures in Cities and Urban Areas

  • Mohsen M. Aboulnaga
  • Amr F. Elwan
  • Mohamed R. Elsharouny


Climate change (CC) is inevitable! The need for urgent response to climate change impacts is momentarily taking place to mitigate such impacts of severe events on the most vulnerability sectors, whether on current risks or future risks. Nonetheless, these responses are not at the same momentum with the severity of CC risks. Throughout history, civilizations have been associated with climate. People and societies have adjusted and coped with climate at varying degrees of success. Drought, for example, has been at least partly responsible for the rise and fall of civilizations. Scientifically, the idea of adaptation emerged in 1991 by the US National Academy of Sciences. Climate change adaptation (CCA) measures reduce the adverse effects of climate change risks by taking appropriate actions to prevent or minimize the damage resulting in exposure to hazards or taking advantage of opportunities that increase resilience to climate change and sustainability. This chapter identifies adaptation measures in cities, including urban and rural areas that aid in preventing, moderating or adapting to the consequences of CC risks. These measures are discussed specifically on ten sectors (flood prone areas, urban areas, infrastructure and activities in the city such as fresh water, energy, public health, agriculture, forest, biodiversity and economy). Also, the share of Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and Latin America from these measures will be identified. Finally, the chapter explains the role and significance of CCA measures in enhancing and/or upgrading cities and buildings’ retrofitting.


Climate change Adaptation measures Urban areas Infrastructure City resilience 


  1. 1.
    William R. Travis, “Elements of a Severe Climate Change Early Warning System” [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: March 10, 2015).
  2. 2.
    “Strengthening Climate Information and Early Warning Systems for Climate Resilient Development” United Nations Development Programme, [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: July 28, 2015).
  3. 3.
    Jon Barnett Michael Webber, “Accommodating Migration to Promote Adaptation to Climate Change”, The World Bank Development Economics Office, 2010.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Laura Tam, “strategies for Managing Sea Level Rise” THE URBANIST, no. 487, 2009.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    “Survey of Climate Change Adaptation Measures in Maldives”, Ministry of Housing and Environment, 2011.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Matthew M. Linham and J. Nicholls, “Technologies for Climate Change Adaptation” United Nations Environment Programme, November 2010.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yumi Lee, “Coastal Planning Strategies for Adaptation to Sea Level Rise: A Case Study of Mokpo, Korea”, Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, pp.74–81, 2014.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Keith H. Hirokawa and Jonathan D. Rosenbloom, “Land Use Planning in a Climate Change Context”, Edward Elgar, 2013.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jessica Grannis, “Adaptation Tool Kit: Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Land Use”, Georgetown Climate Center, 2011.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Norval Collins, “A Guide for Incorporating Adaptation to Climate Change into Land Use Planing” MCIP CEF Consultants, November 2005.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    “Awareness campaigns for behavioural change” European Climate Adaptation Platform, [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: July 18, 2015).
  12. 12.
    Erin L. Bohensky, Alex Smajgl and Tom Brewer, “Patterns in household-level engagement with climate change in Indonesia”, Nature Climate Change, pp.348–351, 2013.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies, “Pacific Island Mangroves in a Changing Climate and Rising Sea”, United Nations Environment Programme, 2006.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Martin Ely and Sheryn Pitman, “Green Infrastructure Life support for human habitats The compelling evidence for incorporating nature into urban environments”, Green Infrastructure Project, Botanic Gardens of South Australia, 2014.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Climate change and water Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change climate change and water IPCC Technical Paper VI” Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, June 2008.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mark Snow and Deo Prasad, “Climate Change Adaptation for Building Designers: An Introduction”, Australian Institute of Architects, 2011.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    “Adapting to climate change in Africa”, Joto Afrika, no. 3, April 2010.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Anton Cartwright, “Global Climate Change and Adaptation – A Sea-Level Rise Risk Assessment”, The City of Cape Town Environmental Resource Management Department, July 2008.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    “Solid Waste Management Addressing Climate Change Impacts on Infrastructure: Preparing for Change”, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), 2012.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    The World Bank Group, “Solid Waste, guide to Climate Change and Adaptation in cities” The World Bank Group, [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: July 28, 2015).
  21. 21.
    “Sustainable Urban Development Planner for Climate Change Adaptation” European Union, [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: July 28, 2015).
  22. 22.
    The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), “Adaptation to Climate Change in the Context of Sustainable Development Background Paper prepared under contract By, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Division for Sustainable Development Cli” in Climate Change and Sustainable Development, New Delhi, 7–8 April 2006.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    “Developing Early Warning Systems: A Checklist” in EWC III Third International Conference on Early Warning From Concept to Action, Bonn, Germany, 27–29 March 2006.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rasmus Heltberg and Misha Bonch-Osmolovskiy, “Mapping vulnerability to climate change”, The World Bank, January 2011.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    “Climate Change Monitoring System” climate tech wiki, [Online]. Available at: of the technology. (Accessed: July 16, 2015).
  26. 26.
    Chido R Mutambara, “An Evaluation of Cash transfer Programmes in Zimbabwe as a Strategy to Reduce Poverty” University of Zimbabwe, October 2011.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mark Davies, Katy Oswald and Tom Mitchell, “Climate Change Adaptation, Disaster Risk Reduction and Social Protection” The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 2009.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    NHS Sustainable development Unit, “Adaptation to Climate Change for Health and Social Care organisations” NHS Sustainable development Unit, 2012.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chris Reardon and Dick Clarke, “Passive cooling” [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: August 18, 2015).
  30. 30.
    “Flood-proofing” climate tech wik, [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: August 19, 2015).
  31. 31.
    Jon Braman, Steven Kolberg and Jeff Perlman, “Energy and Water Savings in Multifamily Retrofits”, Bright Power, Inc., 2014.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    The Soil Resources, Management and Conservation Service, “Guidelines for land-use planning” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1993.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gregory R.A. Richardson and José Otero, “Land use planning tools for local adaptation to climate change” Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2012.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bhishna Bajracharya, “Climate change adaptation through land use planning and disaster management: Local government perspectives from Queensland” in 17th Pacific Rim Real Estate Society Conference Climate change and property: Its impact now and later, January 2011.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Aromar Revi et al, “Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability” in Chapter 8. Urban Areas, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, March 31, 2014, pp.535–612.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Øystein Hov, Ulrich Cubasch and others, “Extreme Weather Events in Europe: preparing for climate change adaptation”, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, October 2013.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    “Infrastructure, Engineering and Climate Change Adaptation – ensuring services in an uncertain future”, The Royal Academy of Engineering on behalf of Engineering the Future, 2011.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    “Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report” Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Economic Commission for Europe, “Guidance on Water and Adaptation to Climate Change”, United Nations Publications, 2009.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Copa Europe farms, “Water and agriculture under a changing climate” Copa Europe farms, [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: July 17, 2015).
  41. 41.
    Kommunalkredit Public Consulting GmbH, “Improving the Environmental Quality of the Black Sea through Better Waste Water Treatment & Climate Change Adaptation of the Water Sector in Moldova”, European Commission, 2013.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    US Environmental Protection Agency, “Fact Sheet: 21 Water Conservation Measures for Everybody” US Environmental Protection Agency, [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: January 10, 2016).
  43. 43.
    “Climate Risk and Adaptation in the Electric Power Sector” Asian Development Bank, 2012.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    “Adaptation Examples: Energy” US Environmental Protection Agency, [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: August 18, 2015).
  45. 45.
    “Water in a Low-Carbon Economy: Resource Scarcity, Climate Change and Business in a Finite World, POLICY BRIEF”, Stockholm Environment Institute, 2012.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    “Adaptation in Action: Grantee Success Stories from CDC’s Climate and Health Program” American Public Health Association, March 2015.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sara P. Hoverter, “Adapting to Urban Heat: A Tool Kit for Local Governments” Georgetown Climate Center, 2012.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    “Health impacts of climate change: Adaptation strategies for western Australia” Environmental Health Directorate, Department of Health, 2008.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rebecca Clements, “Technologies for Climate Change Adaptation – Agriculture Sector” UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, 2011.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    P.A. Jaranilla-Sanchez et al., “A Primer on Climate Change Adaptation in the Philippines”, World Agroforestry Centre, 2007.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ada Ignaciuk and Daniel Mason-D’Croz, “Modelling Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture”, OECD Publishing, 2014.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Laurence Jassogne, Peter Läderach and Piet van Asten, “The Impact of Climate Change on Coffee in Uganda: Lessons from a Case Study in the Rwenzori Mountains”, Oxfam Research Reports, 2013.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    R.P. Singh, “Environmental Studies”, Concept Publishing Company, 2012.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ad Hoc Working Group III on Climate Change and Forestry, “Climate Change and Forestry Report”, The Standing Forestry Committee, 2010.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Samuel Mulenga, “Opportunities for Adaptation and Mitigation through Africa Bio-Carbon Initiative”, Center for International Forest Research, Zambia, 2010.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sandra Naumann and Gerardo Anzaldua, “Assessment of the potential of ecosystem-based approaches to climate change adaptation and mitigation in Europe” European Commission, November 2011.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    The Canadian Parks Council Climate Change Working Group, “Canadian Parks and Protected Areas: Helping Canada weather climate change”, Parks Canada Agency on behalf of the Canadian Parks Council, 2013.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    “Natural Resource Program”, New York State Department of State, April 2010.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    “Impacts, Vulnerabilities and Adaptation in Developing Countries”, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 2007.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Graham Sem, “Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Small Island Developing States” UNFCCC, [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: August 19, 2015).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    “Floods: Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies for Human Health” WHO, London, UK, 2002.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability”, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jane M. Chun, “Planned Relocations in the Mekong Delta: A Successful Model for Climate Change Adaptation”, Brookings Institution, 2015.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    “Adaptation Examples: Coastal Areas” EPA, [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: November 23, 2015).
  65. 65.
    “Climate Change Adaptation Planning in Latin American and Caribbean Cities” ICF GHK in association with King’s College London and Grupo Laera Job Number, October 2012.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Narayan S., et al., “The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences” PLoS ONE, 2016.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ecologic Institute and AEA group, “Adaptation to Climate Change Policy instruments for adaptation to climate change in big European cities and metropolitan areas” European Union, 2011.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hunt and Watkiss, “Sea level rise and coastal flood risk, health and water resources” THe World Bank, 2011.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Joanne Langis Groupe, “Adaptation measures for floods, storm surges, and sea level rise” Université de Moncton, 2013.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    “Climate Change Adaptation Planning in Latin American and Caribbean Cities” The World Bank Group, 2015.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Caroline Petersen, “South Africa: Ecosystem-Based Planning for Climate Change”, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Case Studies Illustrating the Socio-Economic Benefits of Ecological Networks, Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2010.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sarah-Taïssir Bencharif, “Climate Change And Connectivity: Are Corridors the Solution?” Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario, Canada, 2010.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ligia Castro et al, “Ch:12 Latin America and the Caribbean” in Global Environment Outlook (GEO-5), UNEP, 2012.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    “Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe” European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 2012.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rachel M. Gregg et al., “The State of Marine and Coastal Adaptation in North America: A Synthesis of Emerging Ideas Final Report” EcoAdapt, January 2011.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    laine Fultz and John Francis, “Cash transfer programmes, poverty reduction and empowerment of women: A comparative analysis Experiences from Brazil, Chile, India, Mexico and South Africa” International Labour Organization, 2013.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    “Details on Transfer Payment Program” Government of Canada, [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: December 14, 2015).
  79. 79.
    Paul Moss et al., “eAdapting to Climate Chang in Minnesota 2013” The Interagency Climate Adaptation Team, November 2013.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    UNESCO, “Groundwater Management Coastal areas” Asian Development Bank, [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: November 21, 2015).
  81. 81.
    “Adaptation of groundwater management (2015)” climate-adapt, [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: November 22, 2015).
  82. 82.
    Salt Water Intrusion Barrier Wells, The Class V Underground Injection Control Study, United States Office of Ground Water, EPA, 1999.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    “Regional Diagnostic Report Latin America and the Caribbean”, in Groundwater Governance - A Global Framework for Action, Montevideo, Uruguay, 18–20 April 2012.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    “Social Aspects of Sustainable Development in South Africa” The Government of South Africa to the fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, 1997.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    “How Efficiency Programs Help Water Utilities Save Water and Avoid Costs”, United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water, 2002.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    “Implementation of the water policy and strategy of the United Nations Environment Programme” Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme, 2009.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    “Public Health Agency of Canada 2014–2015, Departmental Performance Report”, The Honourable Jane Philpott, 2015.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    “The Climate Change Commission” Office of the President of Philippines, [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: March 12, 2016).
  89. 89.
    “Case Studies” The U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit, [Online]. Available at:[0]=field_climate_stressor%3A103&f[1]=field_parent_topic%3A115. (Accessed: November 14, 2015).
  90. 90.
    Marta Bruno Soares and Suraje Dessai, “Exploring the use of seasonal climate forecasts in Europe through expert elicitation”, Elsevier, vol. 10, pp. 8–16, 2015.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    “Climate Change Adaptation Plan”, US Environmental Protection Agency, 2014.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    James J. McCarthy et al., “Climate change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2001.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    “The UN-REDD Programme” UN-REDD, [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: September 10, 2015).
  94. 94.
    “Marine protected areas in Europe’s seas”, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 2015.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Guerrero, E. et al., Protected Areas and Development in Latin America - From Santa Marta 1997 to Bariloche 2007 and Perspectives for a New Decade, Bogotá: IUCN Colombian Committee, Parques Nacionales Naturales Colombia and Fundación Natura, 2009.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    “XXXVIII Regular Meeting of the Latin American Council” in The vision of the green economy in the Latin America and the Caribbean, Caracas, Venezuela, 17–19 October 2012.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohsen M. Aboulnaga
    • 1
  • Amr F. Elwan
    • 2
  • Mohamed R. Elsharouny
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Architecture, Faculty of EngineeringCairo UniversityGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Faculty of EngineeringMilitary Technical CollegeCairoEgypt
  3. 3.Architect & Out-sourced Project CoordinatorAfrican Export Import Bank (Afreximbank)CairoEgypt

Personalised recommendations