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Processing, Characterization and Application of Natural Rubber Based Environmentally Friendly Polymer Composites

  • Nayan Ranjan SinghaEmail author
  • Manas Mahapatra
  • Mrinmoy Karmakar
  • Pijush Kanti Chattopadhyay
Chapter

Abstract

Environmentally friendly natural rubber composites (NRCs)/nanocomposites (NCs) filled with natural organic fillers coming from renewable and biodegradable sources have been raising continuous and utmost interests to fulfil the increasing demand related to the minimum use of petroleum-based non-renewable resources. In order to develop the improved properties and performance characteristics of green NRCs/NCPs, continuously increasing attention has been devoted to enhance mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties through augmentation of interfacial adhesion among natural fillers and NR matrix, together with ensuring more even distribution of fillers via chemical modification of the fillers/NR and use of adhesion/dispersion promoters/additives. Therefore, mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of various NRCs/NCPs have mainly been focused, along with necessary alterations in the biodegradability. In this context, NRCs/NCPs have been categorized into four major parts, i.e., NR composites filled with plant fibers, nano-cellulose (NC) reinforced NR NCPs, NRCs based on recycled rubber granulate, and NR composites containing proteins, with special attention being paid on processing, characterization, and preparation of NR composites filled with nanocellulosic fillers. The role of new microstructures, such as honeycomb, Zn-cellulose complex, cellulose-cellulose network etc., have been analyzed to obtain environmentally friendly NR composites suited for interpenetrating polymer network (IPN), sensor, and other sophisticated materials.

Abbreviations

BF

Bamboo fiber

CB

Carbon black

CF

Coir/coconut fiber

CV

Conventional vulcanization

DMA

Dynamic mechanical analysis

EAB

Elongation at break

EV

Efficient vulcanization

IF

Isora fiber

IPN

Interpenetrating polymer network

LW

Leather waste

MBTS

2-mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide

NC

Nanocellulose

NCP

Nanocomposite

NF

Nanofiller

NRC

Natural rubber composite

NR

Natural rubber

NW

Nanowhisker

OPF

Oil palm fiber

PC

Polymer composite

PLA

Poly(lactic acid)

PLF

Pineapple leaf fiber

PP

Polypropylene

RG

Rubber granulate

RRG

Recycled rubber granulate

SBR

Styrene butadiene rubber

SEV

Semi-efficient vulcanization

SF

Sisal fiber

TMTD

Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide

TSH

Toluenosulfohydrazina

TS

Tensile strength

ZMB

Zinc-2-mercaptobenzothiazole

Notes

Acknowledgements

The corresponding author gratefully acknowledges the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India (YSS/2015/000886).

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nayan Ranjan Singha
    • 1
    Email author
  • Manas Mahapatra
    • 1
  • Mrinmoy Karmakar
    • 1
  • Pijush Kanti Chattopadhyay
    • 2
  1. 1.Advanced Polymer Laboratory, Department of Polymer Science and TechnologyGovernment College of Engineering and Leather Technology (Post-Graduate), Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of TechnologySalt Lake, KolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of Leather TechnologyGovernment College of Engineering and Leather Technology (Post-Graduate), Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of TechnologySalt Lake, KolkataIndia

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