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Extraction of Cellulose Nanofibers and Their Eco-friendly Polymer Composites

  • M. Hazwan HussinEmail author
  • Djalal Trache
  • Caryn Tan Hui Chuin
  • M. R. Nurul Fazita
  • M. K. Mohamad Haafiz
  • Md. Sohrab Hossain
Chapter

Abstract

Polymer-based materials are an important and promising area of research exhibiting strong developments (Sadeghi et al. in J Mol Liq 263:282–287, 2018, [1; Rezakazemi et al. in Progr Energy Combust Sci 66:1–41, 2018 [2]). They play a prominent role in the modern civilization and find application in different industries related to electrical and electronic equipment, chemicals, automotive, spacecraft, energy storage in batteries and supercapacitors and medical to cite a few.

List of Abbreviations

%

Percentage

[BMIM]Cl

1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

[BMIM]HSO4

1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate

[EMIM][OAc]

1-ethyl-3-methyllimidazolium acetate

[SBMIM]HSO4

1-(4-sulfobutyl)-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate

AFM

Atomic force microscopy

AGU

Anhydroglucose unit

ANC

Amorphous nanocellulose

BC

Bacterial cellulose

cm

Centimeter

CNC

Cellulose nanocrystal

CNF

Cellulose nanofibrils

CNM

Cellulose nanomaterials

CNY

Cellulose nanoyarn

CrI

Crystallinity index

D

Apparent crystallite size

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

FTIR

Fourier Transform

HEBM

High-energy bead milling

kg/day

Kilogram per day

nm

Nanometer

PLA

Polylactide

SEM

Scanning electron microscope

TAPPI

Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry

TBAA

Tetrabutylammonium acetate

TEM

Transmission electron microscope

TEMPO

2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy

TGA

Thermogravimetric analysis

Tmax

Melting point temperature

XRD

X-ray Diffraction

λ

X-ray wavelength

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors wish to thank their parental institutes (Universiti Sains Malaysia through USM Research University Incentive, RUI Grant 1001/PKIMIA/8011077 and Short Term Grant 304/PKIMIA/6315100) for providing the necessary facility to accomplish this work.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Hazwan Hussin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Djalal Trache
    • 2
  • Caryn Tan Hui Chuin
    • 1
  • M. R. Nurul Fazita
    • 3
  • M. K. Mohamad Haafiz
    • 3
  • Md. Sohrab Hossain
    • 3
  1. 1.Materials Technology Research Group (MaTReC), School of Chemical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaMindenMalaysia
  2. 2.UER Procédés Energétiques, Ecole Militaire PolytechniqueBordj El-BahriAlgeria
  3. 3.School of Industrial TechnologyUniversiti Sains MalaysiaMindenMalaysia

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