Extraction of Cellulose Nanofibers and Their Eco/Friendly Polymer Composites

  • Stephen C. AgwunchaEmail author
  • Chioma G. Anusionwu
  • Shesan J. Owonubi
  • E. Rotimi Sadiku
  • Usman A. Busuguma
  • I. David Ibrahim


Cellulose nanosize particles extracted from cellulose fibers are now very important materials for almost all aspect of human endeavours. From medicals to the drug, from industrial applications to domestic uses, they have become part of our daily lives. This is because CNP has been found to possess the properties required to replace many of the traditionally known materials such as glass, metals, concrete, synthetic plastics and fibers. The major advantages of CNPs are that they are from natural sources that are renewable; they are environmentally-friendly; they are cost-effective and biodegradable. No doubt, cellulose nanomaterials have come to stay. However, their performance or extent of application is predicated on the source of the cellulose fibers and the process of their extraction and isolation. Since the molecular units of the cellulose fibers are the same, then their extraction processes must be tailored to suit the planned application. To this end, understanding the steps, processes and available methods for the extraction and isolation of CNPs will lead to wider imaginations of possible applications. As of today, the application of these CNPs is at all-time high.


Cellulose nanoparticles Nanocellulose extraction Acid hydrolysis Cellulose bleaching Nanocellulose composites Nanocellulose applications 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen C. Agwuncha
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chioma G. Anusionwu
    • 2
  • Shesan J. Owonubi
    • 3
  • E. Rotimi Sadiku
    • 4
  • Usman A. Busuguma
    • 5
  • I. David Ibrahim
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryIbrahim Badamasi Babangida UniversityLapaiNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Applied ChemistryUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgRSA
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryUniversity of ZululandKwadlangezwa, Kwazulu NatalRSA
  4. 4.Department of Chemical, Metallurlogical and Material EngineeringTshwane University of TechnologyPretoriaRSA
  5. 5.Department of Remedial ScienceRamat PolytechnicMaiduguriNigeria

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