Multiple-Ligament Knee Injuries in the United States Military Active-Duty Population

  • Mark P. PallisEmail author
  • Joseph T. LanziJr.
  • Estephan J. Garcia
  • William M. Weiss
  • Andrew G. Chan


The multiple-ligament injured knee is a devastating orthopedic injury that can result in long-term disability. Although the incidence within the military population has not been established, there are several reports describing the pathology and prognosis associated with these injuries in service members. The mechanisms are typically high-energy trauma, sports or training injury, or combat-related. The principles of management of multiple-ligamentous knee injuries in the active-duty service member are similar to that in civilian trauma. However, combat-related multiple-ligament knee injuries have unique treatment considerations due to austere settings and combat mechanisms that result in complex extremity trauma and amputation. The goal for a soldier with a multiple-ligament knee injury is surgical reconstruction to restore stability and function to the extremity and to allow return to duty. As in civilian trauma, the challenge with multiple-ligament knee injuries is that treatment is dictated by the specific ligaments injured, the severity and constellation of associated injuries, and the performance requirements or expectations of the patient.


Active-duty US Military Combat injury Return to duty Multiple-ligament knee injury 



Ankle–brachial index


Anterior cruciate ligament


Advanced trauma life support


Computerized tomography


Disease and non-battle injuries


Improvised explosive devices


Lateral collateral ligament


Medical collateral ligament


Military occupational specialty


Magnetic resonance imaging


Operation enduring freedom


Operation Iraqi freedom


Posterior cruciate ligament


Physical Evaluation Board


Posterior lateral corner


Tactical combat casualty care


United States


United States Air Force


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark P. Pallis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joseph T. LanziJr.
    • 1
  • Estephan J. Garcia
    • 1
  • William M. Weiss
    • 2
  • Andrew G. Chan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, William Beaumont Army Medical CenterEl PasoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Texas Tech University Health Sciences CenterEl PasoUSA

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