Treatment for Trauma-Related Disorders: The “Three Buckets” Model

  • Elspeth Cameron Ritchie
  • Rachel M. Sullivan
  • Kyle J. Gray


PTSD is a complex psychiatric disorder with common comorbidities that can be difficult to treat. Conventional evidence-based therapies include trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy and certain antidepressants, but these treatments may not be tolerated or preferred for a variety of reasons, or they may only be partially effective. This lesson familiarizes the clinician with a variety of CAM treatment options for PTSD as well as the rapidly growing use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for PTSD. We review the basics of various meditation practices, animal-assisted therapy, acupuncture, and TMS and potential ways they can be incorporated into practice. We also briefly discuss what is known about the use of cannabinoids for PTSD.


Military Veterans PTSD Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) Meditation Animal-assisted therapy Acupuncture Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elspeth Cameron Ritchie
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Rachel M. Sullivan
    • 5
  • Kyle J. Gray
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryMedStar Washington Hospital CenterWashington, DCUSA
  2. 2.Georgetown University School of MedicineWashington, DCUSA
  3. 3.George Washington University School of MedicineWashington, DCUSA
  4. 4.Uniformed Services University of the Health SciencesSilver SpringUSA
  5. 5.Psychiatry Residency Program, Tripler Army Medical Center, Behavioral HealthHonoluluUSA
  6. 6.Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Behavioral HealthBethesdaUSA

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