Monitoring China’s City Expansion in the Urban–Rural Fringe: A Grammar for Binjiang District in Hangzhou

  • Ruichen Ni
  • José P. DuarteEmail author
Conference paper


This study uses an analytical shape grammar to encode the general principles behind the structure of a fringe district and describe how a rural area evolved into an urban district. The study shows that both rural and urban development patterns rule-based and, therefore, urban growth could be regulated using synthetic grammars to control the transformation of rural into urban patterns.


  1. 1.
    Zhang Y (2014) Study on the development of urban and rural integration and its development strategy in the urbanization of nanjing. Sichuan Archit 6Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pryor R (1968) Defining the rural-urban fringe. Soc Forces 47(2):202–215. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Potter S, Potter J (1990) China’s peasants: the anthropology of a revolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang YP, Wang Y, Wu J (2009) Urbanization and informal development in china: urban villages in Shenzhen. Int J Urban Reg Res 33:957–973 Scholar
  5. 5.
    Knight J, Song L (1999) The rural-urban divide. Economic disparities and interactions in China. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yang X, Day J, Han SS (2015) Urban peripheries as growth and conflict spaces: the development of new towns in china. In: Wong TC, Han S, Zhang H (eds) Population mobility, urban planning and management in china. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Unknown (2017) Binjiang District overview. Hangzhou archives. Retrieved from 14 Dec 2017
  8. 8.
    Unknown (2007) Overall planning guideline. Living in Hangzhou. Retrieved from 12 Sep 2007
  9. 9.
    Tang J (2016) The city successfully completed the entire village relocation in 15 urban village in Binjiang district Hanghzou. Zhejiang daily. Retrieved from 6 Jun 2016
  10. 10.
    Gil J, Duarte JP (2008) Towards an urban design evaluation framework. In: Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe conference proceedings/ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium), 17–20 Sep 2008, pp 257–264Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alexander C, Ishikawa S, Silverstein M (1977) A pattern language: towns, buildings, construction. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stiny G (1980) Introduction to shape and shape grammars. Environ Plan 7:343–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hillier B (1996) Space is the machine-a configurational theory of architecture. In: Nikolopoulou M (ed) Designing open spaces in the urban environment: a bioclimatic approach. Centre of Renewable Energy Resources, Greece, 2004. Cambridge University Press, UKGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beirão JN, Duarte, JP, Stouffs R (2009) An urban grammar for Praia: towards generic shape grammars for urban design. In: Computation: The New Realm of architectural design [27th eCAADe conference proceedings/ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey), 16–19 Sep 2009, pp 575–584Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Duarte JP (2005) A discursive grammar for customizing mass housing: the case of Siza’s houses at Malagueira. Autom Construct 14(2):265–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Beirão JN, Duarte JP, Gil J, Montenegro N (2009) Monitoring urban design through generative design support tools: a generative grammar for Praia. In: Proceedings of the 15th APDR congress on networks and regional development, Cidade da Praia, Cabo VerdeGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Beirão JN, Mendes G, Duarte JP, Stouffs R (2010) Implementing a generative urban design model: grammar-based design patterns for urban design. In: Future cities [28th eCAADe conference proceedings/ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland), 15–18 Sep 2010, pp 265–274Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gamma E, Helm R, Johnson R, Vlissides J (1995) Design patterns: elements of reusable object-oriented software. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MAzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gruber TB (1993) A translation approach to portable ontology specifications. Knowl Acquisition 5(2):257–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Beirão JN, Duarte JP, Stouffs R (2011) Nexus Netw J 13:73. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Figure 1. 2000–2016 Land Use Change in Aerial View. Google Earth, Hangzhou, (eds) AuthorGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Pennsylvania State UniversityState CollegeUSA

Personalised recommendations