Advertisement

Irrigation Scheduling to Maximize Water Utilization of the Crop Rotation

  • Samiha Ouda
  • Abd El-Hafeez Zohry
  • Tahany Noreldin
Chapter

Abstract

There are some evidences indicate increasing trends in evapotranspiration (ETo) values in the past 30 years in Egypt. Due to unavailability of daily weather elements in many parts of Egypt, there is a need to determine the length of time interval of previous weather data and consequently ETo values, with less variability that can be used to properly schedule irrigation in the five agro-climatic zones of Egypt. Daily values of maximum, minimum and dew point temperatures, as well as solar radiation, and wind speed were collected for 10 years (2007–2016). Statistical analysis was applied to study the spatial and temporal variability of weather elements, as well as ETo values (annual, winter, and summer). The analysis revealed that in the first agro-climatic zone, the interval between 2013 and 2016 is suitable to be used to schedule irrigation for both winter and summer crops. In the second and third agro-climatic zones, the interval between 2012 and 2016 is suitable for winter crops and the interval between 2013 and 2016 is suitable for summer crops. For the fourth agro-climatic zone, the interval between 2013 and 2016 is suitable for winter between 2014 and 2016 is suitable for summer crops. Whereas, in the fifth agro-climatic zone, interval between 2013 and 2016 is suitable for winter crops and summer crops. Using the developed ETo time intervals in calculating water requirements for the prevailing crop rotations saved 1–3% of the applied water to these rotations using 2016 weather data. Thus, the above results implied the suitability of the developed ETo time intervals in irrigation scheduling in for crops to improve irrigation water management on field level. This approach could result in efficient use of irrigation water in agriculture to reduce unnecessary losses.

Keywords

Weather elements Spatial and temporal variability Annul and seasonal evapotranspiration values Agro-climatic zones of Egypt 

References

  1. Abou Zeid K (2002) Egypt and the world water goals: Egypt statement in the world summit for sustainable development and beyond. JohannesburgGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali MH (2010) Fundamentals of irrigation and on-farm water management, vol 1. Springer Science Business Media, LLC 2010.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6335-2_9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M (1998) Crop evapotranspiration-guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56. FAO, Rome, Italy, p D05109Google Scholar
  4. Burn DH, Hesch NM (2007) Trends in evaporation for the Canadian Prairies. J Hydrol 336:61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buttafuoco G, Caloiero T, Coscarelllr R (2010) Spatial uncertainty assessment in modeling reference evapotranspiration at regional scale. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci Discuss 7:4567.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hessd-7-4567
  6. Da Silva VPR (2004) On climate variability in Northeast of Brazil. J Arid Environ 58:575–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dinpashoh Y, Jhajharia D, Fakheri-Fard A, Singh VP, Kahya E (2011) Trends in reference crop evapotranspiration over Iran. J Hydrol 399:422–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Draper NR, Smith H (1987) Applied regression analysis. Wiley, New York, pp 397–402Google Scholar
  9. Gao G, Chen DL, Ren GY, Chen Y, Liao YM (2006) Spatial and temporal variations and controlling factors of potential evapotranspiration in China: 1956–2000. J Geogr Sci 16:3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Han X, Liua W, Lina W (2015) Spatiotemporal analysis of potential evapotranspiration in the Changwu tableland from 1957 to 2012. Meteorol Appl 22:586–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Irmak A, Irmak S (2008) Reference and crop evapotranspiration in south central Nebraska: II. Measurement and estimation of actual evapotranspiration. J Irrig Drain Eng ASCE 134(6):700–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Irmak S, Mutiibwa D (2009) On the dynamics of stomatal resistance: relationships between stomatal behavior and micrometeorological variables and performance of Jarvis-type parameterization. Trans ASABE 52(6):1923–1939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Irmak S, Mutiibwa D (2010) On the dynamics of canopy resistance: generalized-linear estimation and its relationships with primary micrometeorological variables. Water Resour Res 46(1–20):W08526.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009WR008484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Khalil F, Ouda SA, Osman N, Khamis E (2011) Determination of agro-climatic zones in Egypt using a robust statistical procedure. In: Proceeding of the 15th international conference on water technology, Alexandria, Egypt. 30 May–2 JuneGoogle Scholar
  15. Maulé C, Helgalson M, McGinn SW, Cutforth H (2006) Estimation of standardized reference evapotranspiration on the Canadian Prairies using simple models with limited weather data. Can Biosyst Eng 48:1.1–1.11Google Scholar
  16. McVicar TR, Van Niel TG, Hutchinson LL, Mu X, Liu Z (2007) Spatially distributing monthly reference evapotranspiration and pan evaporation considering topographic influences. J Hydrol 338:196.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.02.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Morsy M, Sayad T, Ouda S (2017) Present and future water requirements for crops. In: Future of food gaps in Egypt: obstacles and opportunities. Springer Publishing House. ISBN 978-3-319-46942-3Google Scholar
  18. Noreldin T, Ouda S, Amer A (2016) Agro-climatic zoning in the Nile Delta and Valley to improve water management. J Water Land Dev 31(X–XII):113–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ouda S, Noreldin T (2017) Evapotranspiration data to determine agro-climatic zones in Egypt. J Water Land Dev 32(I–III):79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ouda S, Noreldin T, Abd El-Latif K (2015) Water requirements for wheat and maize under climate change in North Nile Delta. Span J Agric Res 13(1):1–7Google Scholar
  21. Paltineanu C, Panoras AG, Mavroudis IG, Louisakis A (1999) Estimating reference evapotranspiration and irrigation water requirements in the Gallikos river basin, Greece. Int Agroghisics 13:49–62Google Scholar
  22. Sendicor GW, Cochran WG (1980) Statistical method, 7th edn. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USAGoogle Scholar
  23. Shahidian SR, Serralheiro J, Serrano J, Teixeira N, Hai E, Santos F (2012) Hargreaves and other reduced-set methods for calculating evapotranspiration. In: Irmak A (ed) Evapotranspiration—remote sensing and modeling. InTech. ISBN: 978-953-307-808-3. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/evapotranspiration-remote-sensing-and-modeling/hargreaves-and-otherreduced-set-methods-for-calculating-evapotranspirationGoogle Scholar
  24. Snyder RL, Orang M, Bali K, Eching S (2004) Basic irrigation scheduling (BIS). http://www.waterplan.water.ca.gov/landwateruse/wateruse/Ag/CUP/Californi/Climate_Data_010804.xls
  25. Song ZW, Zhang HL, Snydre RL, Anderson FE, Chen F (2010) Distribution and trends in reference evapotranspiration in the North China Plain. J Irrig Drain E-ASCE 136:240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Song X, Zhu K, Lu F, Xiao W (2017) Spatial and temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration under climate change: a case study in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. Hydrol Res 48(4):314–322Google Scholar
  27. Sumner DM, Jacobs JM (2005) Utility of Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, reference evapotranspiration and pan evaporation methods to estimate pasture evapotranspiration. J Hydrol 308:81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.10.023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tariq JA, Usman K (2009) Regulated deficit irrigation scheduling of maize crop. Sarhad J Agric 25(3):441–450Google Scholar
  29. Yue S, Pilon P, Phinney B, Cavadias G (2002) The influence of auto correlation on the ability to detect trend in hydrological series. Hydrol Process 16:1807–1829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang H, Sun J, Xiong J (2017) Spatial-temporal patterns and controls of evapotranspiration across the Tibetan Plateau (2000–2012). Adv Meteorol, 1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7082606Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samiha Ouda
    • 1
  • Abd El-Hafeez Zohry
    • 2
  • Tahany Noreldin
    • 1
  1. 1.Soil, Water and Environment Research InstituteAgricultural Research CenterGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Field Crops Research InstituteAgricultural Research CenterGizaEgypt

Personalised recommendations