Advertisement

SOS - Securing Open Skies

  • Savio Sciancalepore
  • Roberto Di Pietro
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11342)

Abstract

Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) is the next generation communication technology selected for allowing commercial and military aircraft to deliver flight information to both ground base stations and other airplanes. Today, it is already on-board of 80% of commercial aircraft, and it will become mandatory by the 2020 in the US and the EU. ADS-B has been designed without any security consideration—messages are delivered wirelessly in clear text and they are not authenticated.

In this paper we propose Securing Open Skies (SOS), a lightweight and standard-compliant framework for securing ADS-B technology wireless communications. SOS leverages the well-known \(\mu \)TESLA protocol, and includes some modifications necessary to deal with the severe bandwidth constraints of the ADS-B communication technology. In addition, SOS is resilient against message injection attacks, by recurring to majority voting techniques applied on central community servers. Overall, SOS emerges as a lightweight security solution, with a limited bandwidth overhead, that does not require any modification to the hardware already deployed. Further, SOS is standard compliant and able to reject active adversaries aiming at disrupting the correct functioning of the communication system. Finally, comparisons against state-of-the-art solutions do show the superior quality and viability of our solution.

Keywords

ADS-B Security Authentication Avionics Tesla Experimentation 

References

  1. 1.
    Lim, Y., Bassien-Capsa, V., Ramasamy, S., et al.: Commercial airline single-pilot operations: system design and pathways to certification. IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 32(7), 4–21 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Strohmeier, M., Lenders, V., Martinovic, I.: On the security of the automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast protocol. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tuts. 17(2), 1066–1087 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Radio-Technology-Commission-Aeronautics: Minimum Operational Performance Standards for 1090 MHz Extended Squitter Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Services – Broadcast (TIS-B). Technical report (2014)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Strohmeier, M., Schäfer, M., Lenders, V., Martinovic, I.: Realities and challenges of NextGen air traffic management: the case of ADS-B. IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(5), 111–118 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Strohmeier, M., Lenders, V., Martinovic, I.: Lightweight location verification in air traffic surveillance networks. In: Proceedings of ACM Workshop on Cyber-Physical System Security, pp. 49–60 (2015)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Strohmeier, M., Lenders, V., Martinovic, I.: Intrusion detection for airborne communication using PHY-layer information. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Detection of Intrusions and Malware, and Vulnerability Assessment, pp. 67–77 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alhazbi, S., Sciancalepore, S., Di Pietro, R.: A hole in the sky: de-anonymizing OpenSky receivers. T.R. 2018-2 (2018). https://cri-lab.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Alhazbi_PERCOM2019.pdf
  8. 8.
    Baek, J., Hableel, E., Byon, Y., et al.: How to protect ADS-B: confidentiality framework and efficient realization based on staged identity-based encryption. IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 18(3), 690–700 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yang, A., Tan, X., Baek, J., Wong, D.S.: A new ADS-B authentication framework based on efficient hierarchical identity-based signature with batch verification. IEEE Trans. Serv. Comput. 10(2), 165–175 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kacem, T., Wijesekera, D., Costa, P.: Integrity and authenticity of ADS-B broadcasts. In: IEEE Aerospace Conference, pp. 1–8, March 2015Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kacem, T., Wijesekera, D., Costa, P., Barreto, A.B.: Secure ADS-B framework: ADS-Bsec. In: IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), pp. 2681–2686, November 2016Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berthier, P., Fernandez, J.M., Robert, J.M.: SAT: security in the air using Tesla. In: IEEE/AIAA Digital Avionics Systems Conference, pp. 1–10, September 2017Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yang, H., Yao, M., Xu, Z., Liu, B.: LHCSAS: a lightweight and highly-compatible solution for ADS-B security. In: IEEE Global Communications Conference, pp. 1–7, December 2017Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Calvo-Palomino, R., Ricciato, F., Repas, B., et al.: Nanosecond-precision time-of-arrival estimation for aircraft signals with low-cost SDR receivers. In: Proceedings of ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, pp. 272–277 (2018)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Di Pietro, R., Chessa, S., Maestrini, P.: Computation, memory and bandwidth efficient distillation codes to mitigate DoS in multicast. In: International Conference on Security and Privacy for Emerging Areas in Communications Networks, pp. 13–22, September 2005Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schäfer, M., Strohmeier, M., Lenders, V., Martinovic, I., Wilhelm, M.: Bringing up OpenSky: a large-scale ADS-B sensor network for research. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Information Processing in Sensor, pp. 83–94, April 2014Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tuttlebee, W.: Software Defined Radio: Enabling Technologies. Wiley, Hoboken (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Perrig, A., Canetti, R., Tygar, J.D., Song, D.: Efficient authentication and signing of multicast streams over lossy channels. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pp. 56–73 (2000)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Perrig, A., Szewczyk, R., Tygar, J.D., Wen, V., Culler, D.E.: SPINS: security protocols for sensor networks. Wirel. Netw. 8(5), 521–534 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., Canetti, R.: HMAC: keyed-hashing for message authentication. In: RFC 2104, February 1997Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Alhazbi, S., Sciancalepore, S., Di Pietro, R.: Reliability of ADS-B communications: novel insights based on an experimental assessment. T.R. 2018-1 (2018). https://cri-lab.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/AlHazbi_SAC2019_noanonym.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Information and Computing Technology, College of Science and EngineeringHamad Bin Khalifa UniversityDohaQatar

Personalised recommendations