Advertisement

Vitamin E Intakes and Status in Toddlers, School Kids and Adolescents: What Do We Know?

  • Volker BöhmEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)

Abstract

α-Tocopherol, being the most important vitamin E compound within the human diet, is the major lipophilic antioxidant in the cell antioxidant system. Its intake is important from early infancy up to old age. Absence of a clinically overt disease due to deficient intakes of vitamin E makes it difficult to develop intake recommendations for this essential micronutrient. However, this lipid-soluble vitamin is very important during development from infancy to adolescence. This chapter presents the current situation regarding reference values for vitamin E intake. It also shows published data on vitamin E intake as well as on vitamin E status for toddlers, school kids and adolescents.

Keywords

α-Tocopherol Adequate intake (AI) Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Children Blood plasma 

References

  1. 1.
    WHO/FAO (World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization). 2004. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition: report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, Bangkok, Thailand, September 21–30, 1998. Geneva, 341 pp.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brigelius-Flohé R, Kelly FJ, Salonen JT, Neuzil J, Zingg J-M, Azzi A. The European perspective on vitamin E: current knowledge and future research. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:703–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Truswell S, Mann J. Vitamins C and E. In: Mann J, Truswell AS, editors. Essentials of human nutrition. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2012. p. 236–45.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies). Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for vitamin E as α-tocopherol. EFSA J. 2015;13(7):4149, 72 pp.  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Briefel R, Ziegler P, Novak T, Ponza M. Feeding infants and toddlers study: characteristics and usual nutrient intake of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106:S84–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Butte NF, Fox MK, Briefel RR, Siegaz-Riz AM, Dwyer JT, Deming DM, Reidy KC. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110:S27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sharma S, Kolahdooz F, Butler L, Budd N, Rushovich B, Mukhina G, Gittelsohn J, Caballero B. Assessing dietary intake among infants and toddlers 0–24 months of age in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Nutr J. 2013;12:52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pedroza-Tobías A, Hernández-Barrera L, López-Olmedo N, García-Guerra A, Rodríguez-Ramírez S, Ramírez-Silva I, Villalpando S, Carriquiry A, Rivera JA. Usual vitamin intakes by Mexican populations. J Nutr. 2016;146:1866S–73S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Manios Y, Grammatikaki E, Papoutsou S, Liarigkovinos T, Kondaki K, Moschonis G. Nutrient intakes of toddlers and preschoolers in Greece: the GENESIS study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108:357–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Serra-Majem L, Ribas-Barba L, Pérez-Rodrigo C, Bartrina JA. Nutrient adequacy in Spanish children and adolescents. Br J Nutr. 2006;96:S49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Trafalska E. Assessing diets for energy and nutrients content in nursery school children from Lodz, Poland. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2014;65:27–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Moyersoen I, Devleesschauwer B, Dekkers A, de Ridder K, Tafforeau J, van Camp J, van Oyen H, Lachat C. Intake of fat-soluble vitamins in the Belgian population: adequacy and contribution of foods, fortified foods and supplements. Nutrients. 2017;9:860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Skinner JD, Carruth BR, Houck KS, Bounds W, Morris M, Cox DR, Moran J, Coletta F. Longitudinal study of nutrient and food intakes of white preschool children aged 24 to 60 months. J Am Diet Assoc. 1999;99:1514–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fantino M, Gourmet E. Nutrient intakes in 2005 by non-breast fed French children of less than 36 months. Arch Pediatr. 2008;15:446–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    de Castro MA, Verly-Jr E, Fisberg M, Fisberg RM. Children’s nutrient intake variability is affected by age and body weight status according to results from a Brazilian multicenter study. Nutr Res. 2014;34:74–84.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Carlsohn A, Rohn S, Mayer F, Schweigert FJ. Physical activity, antioxidant status, and protein modification in adolescent athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42:1131–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Harik-Khan RI, Muller DC, Wise RA. Serum vitamin levels and the risk of asthma in children. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159:351–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gunanti IR, Marks GC, Al-Mamun A, Long KZ. Low serum concentrations of carotenoids and vitamin E are associated with high adiposity in Mexican-American children. J Nutr. 2014;144:489–95.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kumar MV, Rajagopalan S. Impact of a multiple-micronutrient food supplement on the nutritional status of schoolchildren. Food Nutr Bull. 2006;27:203–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Neuhouser ML, Rock CL, Elridge AL, Kristal AR, Patterson RE, Cooper DA, Neumark-Sztainer D, Cheskin LJ, Thornquist MD. Serum concentrations of retinol, α-tocopherol and the carotenoids are influenced by diet, race and obesity in a sample of healthy adolescents. J Nutr. 2001;131:2184–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Irwig MS, El-Sohemy A, Baylin A, Rifai N, Campos H. Frequent intake of tropical fruits that are rich in β-cryptoxanthin is associated with higher plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations in Costa Rican adolescents. J Nutr. 2002;132:3161–7.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Valtuena J, Breidenassel C, Folle J, González-Gross M. Retinol, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and vitamin D status in European adolescents; regional differences and variability: A review. Nutr Hosp. 2011;26:280–8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Nutritional SciencesFriedrich Schiller University JenaJenaGermany

Personalised recommendations