Solar Home Systems in Bangladesh
Access to electricity is an important part of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative under the United Nations. Globally about 1.2 billion of people are deprived of electricity, mostly concentrated in rural areas of developing countries including Bangladesh. About two-thirds of the rural population in Bangladesh are yet to enjoy this basic utility. Grid-based electricity is challenging for various reasons including technical, and commercial issues. Development partners including the World Bank started a formal approach for promoting renewable energy and more than 3 million solar home systems have been installed in the off-grid areas of Bangladesh. By replacing kerosene, solar energy has not only facilitated people with an option of a much greater quantity of far-higher quality of lighting, at a lower cost, it has reduced the safety and health risks associated with kerosene, particularly among women and young children. However, considering that only about 10% of people in off-grid areas have adopted solar systems to date, the remaining potential for carbon emission reduction and adaptation is large. In Bangladesh, solar systems are a proven renewable energy technology in dealing with climate change and enhancing socio-economic development. However, there are some remaining technical, commercial and attitudinal constraints which need to be addressed to ensure sustainable development.
KeywordsSolar home systems Electricity Rural Energy Kerosene Solar
- Amin, A. 2013. Long-term Finance: Enabling environments and policy frameworks related to climate finance.Google Scholar
- Asaduzzaman, M., Yunus, M., Haque, A.K.E., Azad, A.K.M.A.M., Neelormi, S. and Hossain, M.A. 2013. Power from the Sun: An Evaluation of Institutional Effectiveness and Impact of Solar Home Systems in Bangladesh. Report submitted to the World Bank, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Assignmentpoint.com 2015; at: http://www.assignmentpoint.com/science/importance-and-impact-of-solar-home-system-shs-in-bangladesh.html (6 September 2016).
- Chairman’s Message, 2014; at: http://www.sreda.gov.bd/index.php/chairman-s-message (6 September 2016).
- Christensen, K., Raihan, S., Ahsan, R., Uddin, A.M.N., Ahmed, C.S. and Wright, H. 2012. Financing Local Adaptation: Ensuring Access for the Climate Vulnerable in Bangladesh. Dhaka: ActionAid Bangladesh, Action Research for Community Adaptation in Bangladesh, Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, and International Centre for Climate Change and Development.Google Scholar
- Fisher, S. 2013. Low carbon resilient development in the least developed countries. IIED Issue Paper. IIED, London.Google Scholar
- Government of Bangladesh 2008. Renewable Energy Policy of Bangladesh; at: http://www.c4learn.com/current-affairs/2015/bangladesh-became-first-country-to-receive-funds-for-solar-home-systems-from-un.html (6 September 2016).
- Hoque, S.M.N. and Das, B.K. 2013. Analysis of Cost, Energy and CO2 Emission of Solar Home Systems in Bangladesh. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, 3, No. 2.Google Scholar
- IDCOL, 2016. Infrastructure Development Company Limited. Internal information.Google Scholar
- Infrastructure Development Company Limited 2015; at: www.idcol.org.
- Islam, S.M.F. 2014. “Financing Renewable Energy in Bangladesh” Presentation by Deputy CEO of Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL) at the West African Power Industry Convention, Lagos, November 2014.Google Scholar
- Islam, Md.A. 2012. Past Experiences and Current Challenges of Solar Energy Usage in Bangladesh, Loughborough University, UK.Google Scholar
- Kato, T., Ellis, J., Pauw, P. and Caruso, R. 2014. Scaling up and replicating effective climate finance interventions. Climate change expert group, Paper No. 2014 (1), OECD.Google Scholar
- Fayyaz Khan, M., and Mahmud Khan, M. 2009. Journal of Electrical Engineering, The Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh, Vol. EE 36, No. II, December 2009.Google Scholar
- Khandker, S.R., Samad, H.A., Sadeque, Z.K.M., Asaduzzaman, M. Yunus, M. and Haque, A.K.E. 2014. Surge in Solar-Powered Homes: Experience in Off-Grid Rural Bangladesh. Directions in Development; Energy and Mining. Washington, DC: World Bank Group; at: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2014/10/20286806/surge-solar-powered-homes-experience-off-grid-rural-bangladesh (6 September 2016).
- Khandkere, S.R. et al. 2013. The benefits of solar home system in Bangladesh-An Analysis from Bangladesh. World Bank Group, Washington D.C, USA.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Finance. 2015. Bangladesh Economic Review 2014.Google Scholar
- MoEF. 2015. Intended Nationally Determined Contributions; at: http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Bangladesh/1/INDC_2015_of_Bangladesh.pdf (6 September 2016).
- Rai, Neha, Asif Iqbal, Asif Iqbal, Antara Zareen, Tasfiq Mahmood, Maliha Muzammil, Saqib Huq, Noor Elahi. 2015a. Financing Inclusive Low-Carbon Resilient Development: Role of Central Bank of Bangladesh and Infrastructure Development Company Limited, Country Report. London: International Institute for Environment and Development; at: http://pubs.iied.org/10139IIED.html (6 September 2016).
- Rai, Neha, Terri Walters, Sean Esterly, Sadie Cox, Maliha Muzammil, Tasfiq Mahmood, Nanki Kaur, Lidya Tesfaye, Simret Mamuye, James Knuckles, Ellen Morris, Merijn de Been, Dave Steinbach, Sunil Acharya, Raju Pandit Chhetri, and Ramesh Bhushal. 2015b. Policies to Spur Energy Access: Volume 2: Case Studies of Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.Google Scholar
- Sadeque, Z., Rysankova, D., Elahi, R. and Soni, R. 2014. Scaling up access to electricity: the case of Bangladesh. Live Wire 2014/21, World Bank Group, 2014; at: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/18679/887020BRI0Live00Box385194B00PUBLIC0.pdf?sequence=1 (6 September 2016).
- Schwan, S. 2011. Overcoming Barriers to Rural Electrification, Masters Thesis, Aarhus University, Denmark.Google Scholar
- SREDA. 2015. Sustainable and Renewable Energy Development Authority website; at: http://www.sreda.gov.bd/index.php/sustainable-energy/renewable-energy/500-mw-solar-development-program (6 September 2016).
- SREDA and Power Division. 2015. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Master Plan up to 2030.Google Scholar
- The World Bank, 2012. Sustainable energy for all: Gearing up for the road ahead; at: http://www.worldbank.org/content/dam/Worldbank/document/SDN/Sustainable_Energy_for_All_World_Bank_Outlook_2012.pdf (6 September 2016).
- The Daily Star. 2015; at: http://www.thedailystar.net/frontpage/bangla-lesson-carbon-polluters-129517 August 20, 2015 (6 September 2016).
- The Daily Star. 2015; at: http://www.thedailystar.net/op-ed/the-potential-solar-home-systems-bangladesh-82837, May 17, 2015 (6 September 2016).
- UNFCCC. 2015. UNFCCC website on CDM; at: http://cdm.unfccc.int/ProgrammeOfActivities/poa_db/ZSI6WP0ODGRQ8UYKXB3MHTL957JVAE/view (6 September 2016).
- World Bank. 2014; at: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2014/06/30/bangladesh-receives-usd-78-million-to-install-an-additional-480000-solar-home-systems (6 September 2016).