Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Areas: A Critical Assessment of the Structural and Non-structural Flood Protection Measures in Dhaka
Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, is susceptible to floods because of its topography, large population, and inadequate infrastructure. Almost half of Dhaka’s population live in the low-lying and flood-prone areas, and the local communities suffer from economic stress due to flooding as well as having an absence of flood protection measures in these areas. The economic damages caused by flooding have a severe impact on national economic development and growth. Unplanned urbanization intensifies damage from flood incidents, including caused by the migration into Dhaka from rural areas as people move to the city in search of jobs and to recover from the impacts of natural disasters like cyclones, droughts, and river erosion in rural areas. This chapter outlines Dhaka’s current situation with regards to flood exposure and risks from climate change as well as summarising key measures to reduce flood risk in recent years.
KeywordsUrban Climate Protection Dhaka Flooding Exposure Risk
- Andjelkovic, I. (2001). Guidelines on non-structural measures in urban flood management. In Technical documents in hydrology (No. 50). UNESCO, Paris.Google Scholar
- Bala, S. K., Islam, S., Chowdhury, J., Salehin, M. (2009). Performance of flood control works around Dhaka city during major floods in Bangladesh. Paper presented at the 2nd international conference on water and flood management, Dhaka, 15–17 March 2009.Google Scholar
- Cities Alliance (2016). Climate migration drives slum growth in Dhaka; at: http://www.citiesalliance.org/node/420 (24 June 2016).
- Dasgupta, S., Zaman, A., Roy, S., Huq, M., Jahan, S. and Nishat, A. (2015). Urban Flooding of Greater Dhaka in a Changing Climate: Building local resilience to disaster risk. World Bank, Washington.Google Scholar
- Dewan, A. (2010). Bloated Dhaka (2010). In: The Daily Star, 18 February.Google Scholar
- Dewan, A. M. and Corner, R. J. (2012). The impact of land use and land cover changes on land surface temperature in a rapidly urbanizing megacity. In: IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Munich, 22–27 July 2012.Google Scholar
- Haque, A. N., Grafakos, S. and Huijsman, M. (2010). Assessment of adaptation measures against flooding in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. In IHS Working Papers (No.IHS WP 25), Rotterdam, Netherlands.Google Scholar
- Huq, S. and Alam, M. (2003). Flood management and vulnerability of Dhaka City. In Kreimer, A., Arnold, M. and Carlin, A. (eds) Building Safer Cities: The Future of Disaster Risk. Washington, DC, pp. 121–135.Google Scholar
- IPCC (2014). Emergent risks and key vulnerabilities. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1039–1099.Google Scholar
- Kabir, A. and Parolin, B. (2012). Planning and development of Dhaka–a story of 400 years. In 15th International Planning History Society Conference. Cities, Nations and Regions in Planning History, Sao Paulo (pp. 1–20).Google Scholar
- Mahmud, M. S., Masrur, A., Ishtiaque, A., Haider, F. and Habiba, U. (2011). Remote Sensing & GIS Based Spatio-Temporal Change Analysis of Wetland in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Journal of Water Resource and Protection 3(11).Google Scholar
- Maniruzzaman, K. M. and Alam, B. M. (2002). A study on the disaster response for shelters during the 1998 flood in Dhaka city. Engineering concerns of flood, pp. 187–200.Google Scholar
- Mojtahed, V., Giupponi, C., Biscaro, C., Gain, A. K. and Balbi, S. (2013). Integrated assessment of natural hazards and climate-change adaptation: II. The SERRA methodology. Working papers no. 07/WP/2013, Department of Economics, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice.Google Scholar
- Morshed, M. M. (2013). Detailed Area Plan (DAP): Why It Does Not Work? Planned Decentralization: Aspired Development: Souvenir published on World Habitat Day. Available at: http://www.bip.org.bd/SharingFiles/journal_book/20140128161651.pdf.
- Mozumder, P. (2005). Exploring Flood Mitigation Strategies in Bangladesh. Professional Project Report, University of New Mexico.Google Scholar
- Murshed, S. B., Islam, A. K. M. S. and Khan, M. S. A. (2011). Impact of climate change on rainfall intensity in Bangladesh. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Water and Flood Management, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 8–10 January 2011.Google Scholar
- The Daily Star (2015). Incessant rainfall inundates city roads; at: http://www.thedailystar.net/incessant-rainfall-inundates-city-roads-37116 (20 June 2016).
- UNISDR (2015). Terminology; at: http://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/terminology (10 Sept 2015).