From Gandhian Pacifism and Communitarianism to the War and the Warlordism: The Adjustment of the Albanian Security Synthesis

  • Shinasi A. Rama


In this chapter I argue that during the 1990s the Albanians in Kosova were an exemplary peaceful, orderly, democratic, and civil society inspired by the principles of non-violence and the Gandhian satyagraha. By 1998, though, the KLA shattered this image and the Albanians were fighting against the Serb state in a peasant uprising that showed their determination, the strength of ethnic ties, and the uncompromising nature of a warlike nationalism. The shift in identity, not just in tactics of the struggle, was remarkable, decisive, and rapid. It took everybody by surprise. From a well-behaved Gandhian nation relying on the communitarian structures, the Albanians of Kosova became the warriors of old, and fell back on ethnic and national structures. The only way to make sense of this shift in the identity is to go to the security synthesis. Identity is the outer layer but in the presence of the same deadly security threat, the security synthesis remains unchanged. The Serbs, the deadly existential threat to the Albanians, changed their policy and decided to solve the issue of Kosova, once and for all. The identity adopted by the Albanians, of a liberal, democratic, and human rights, did not help them. So, faced with the deadly existential threat, they went back to the proven solution of fighting for their own survival. Indeed, this is what I will argue in this chapter.

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shinasi A. Rama
    • 1
  1. 1.International Relations ProgramNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA

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