Administration of Vaccines: Current Process, New Technologies and Adjuvants

  • Giuseppe Del GiudiceEmail author
  • Alberta Di Pasquale
Part of the Practical Issues in Geriatrics book series (PIG)


Vaccine formulations and administration have travelled a long path since the first vaccines were developed. Progress in pharmaceutical science has taught us a lot about tailoring vaccine formulations and routes for administration in order to obtain effective immune responses. Indeed, there is an age-related decline in immune function that impairs the response to infection and vaccination in older adults. Therefore, specialized solutions are warranted to achieve better vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy among these populations. Vaccine coverage is also suboptimal, meaning that target groups may not be sufficiently well protected. High coverage is essential to maintain health in the population, and there is value in using even those vaccines that appear less than optimal since the impact of vaccination is substantial in terms of death and hospitalization avoided. Strategies to enhance immunization performed are discussed here, including achieving high coverage, development of new formulations with higher antigen content or alternative delivery routes or adjuvants. New technologies are revolutionizing the field of vaccine development; their ability to make possible new and more effective vaccines will further increase benefits of vaccinations in the years to come.


Vaccine Administration Coverage Adjuvants 



This work was sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA. Giuseppe Del Giudice and Alberta Di Pasquale are employees of the GSK Group of Companies.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GSKSienaItaly
  2. 2.GSKWavreBelgium

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