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Direct and Indirect Benefits of a Comprehensive Approach to Vaccinating Adults with Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccines, Especially in Patients with Chronic Diseases

  • Litjen TanEmail author
  • Christian Theilacker
Chapter
Part of the Practical Issues in Geriatrics book series (PIG)

Abstract

Despite the worldwide population ageing phenomenon, less attention is paid to adult immunization than to childhood immunization, even in developed countries with strong public health infrastructures. The global burden of adult vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) is considerable, and influenza (flu) and pneumococcal disease are major contributors to morbidity and mortality in older populations. The estimated cost burden (both direct and indirect) from VPDs is also enormous, exceeding 15 billion USD annually for flu, pneumococcal disease, zoster and pertussis in those aged 65 years and over. Indirect effects of vaccination include aspects that are not often covered in clinical trials, namely, the prevention of the consequences of infection, or herd protection, for example. To justify, sustain and improve adult immunization programmes, we need to have systems that can monitor and measure the impact of vaccination programmes, for example, by providing data on coverage rates. Available surveillance data indicate that globally, vaccination rates are poor and stagnant and not meeting WHO goals. The impact of vaccines is dependent on improving coverage rates, and public awareness, as well as improving clinicians’ willingness to give the vaccine, the public’s ability to get access to vaccines, and improving surveillance.

Keywords

Vaccination Coverage Surveillance Influenza Pneumococcal disease Direct costs Indirect costs Herd protection 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Immunization Action CoalitionSaint PaulUSA
  2. 2.National Adult and Influenza Immunization SummitSaint PaulUSA
  3. 3.Medical Development and Scientific Affairs International Developed Markets, PfizerParisFrance

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