Development of a Mobile Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Prototype
Driving is a complex and cognitively demanding task. It is important to assess the cognitive state of the driver in order to develop cognitive technical systems that can adapt to different cognitive states of the driver. For this purpose, we have developed a mobile functional near-infrared spectroscopy (mofNIRS) prototype. This paper describes the improvements of this mobile prototype with freely placeable optodes on a subject’s head and the results of an evaluation study. We conducted a motor cortex experiment with four subjects, whereby the mobile prototype was mounted on the right hemisphere and a commercial, stationary fNIRS on the left hemisphere above the motor cortex area. One data set had to be discarded due to incorrect synchronization between both systems. The results of the remaining three subjects are presented and discussed in this paper. Here, we report the results from the time-series and Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) analyses, which shows t-values with high differentiability of the Results. Furthermore, both analysis methods show comparable results between the commercial system and the mobile prototype.
KeywordsMobile fNIRS prototype Motor cortical activity Validation study Driver cognitive states
This work was supported by the funding initiative Niedersächsisches Vorab of the Volkswagen Foundation and the Ministry of Science and Culture of Lower Saxony as a part of the Interdisciplinary Research Centre on Critical Systems Engineering for Socio–Technical Systems.
- 1.Anirudh, U., et al.: Brain activity measured with fNIRS for the prediction of cognitive workload. In: 6th IEEE Conference on Cognitive Infocommunications (2015)Google Scholar
- 2.Atsumori, H., et al.: Development of a multi-channel, portable optical topography system. In: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, pp. 3362–3364 (2007)Google Scholar
- 6.Brookhuis, K.A., De Waard, D., Janssen, W.H.: Behavioural Impacts of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems-an overview (2001)Google Scholar
- 14.Freyman, R.: Möglichkeit und Grenzen von Fahrerassistenz- und Aktiven Sicherheitssystemen. Aktive Sicherheit durch Fahrerassistenz (2004)Google Scholar
- 17.Huppelsberg, J., Walter, K.: Kurzlehrbuch Physiologie. Thieme electronic book library. Thieme, Stuttgart [u.a.] (2009)Google Scholar
- 18.Krüger, A., et al.: Imaging of motor activity in freely moving subjects using a wearable NIRS imaging system. In: Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging. Part of Biomedical Optics and 3-D imaging, 28 April–2 May 2012, Miami, Florida, United States. OSA annual topical meeting. OSA technical digest (online). OSA The Optical Society, Washington, DC, BM4A.3 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1364/biomed.2012.bm4a.3
- 22.Piper, S.K., et al.: A wearable multi-channel fNIRS system for brain imaging in freely moving subjects. Celebrating 20 Years Funct. Near Infrared Spectrosc. (fNIRS) 85(Pt 1), 64–71 (2014)Google Scholar
- 27.Tachtsidis, I., Scholkmann, F.: Erratum: publisher’s note: false positives and false negatives in functional near-infrared spectroscopy: issues, challenges, and the way forward. Neurophotonics 3(3), 39–801 (2016)Google Scholar
- 30.Volkening, N., Unni, A., Becker, S., Rieger, J.W., Fudickar, S., Hein, A.: Development of a mobile functional near-infrared spectroscopy prototype and its initial evaluation. In: Proceedings of the 11th PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments Conference on - PETRA 2018, pp. 214–221. ACM Press, New York (2018). https://doi.org/10.1145/3197768.3201534
- 33.Xu, Y., Graber, H.L., Barbour, R.L.: nirsLAB. A computing environment for fNIRS neuroimaging data analysis. In Biomedical Optics, 26–30 April 2014, Miami, Florida, United States. OSA technical digest (online). OSA The Optical Society, Washington, DC, BM3A.1 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1364/biomed.2014.bm3a.1
- 34.Zijlstra, W.G., Buursma, A., van Assendelft, O.W.: Visible and near infrared absoption spectra of human and animal haemoglobin. Determination and application. VSP, Utrecht (2000)Google Scholar