Advertisement

Travel Choice Reframed: “Deep Distribution” and Gender in Urban Transport

  • Caren LevyEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Transport is a critical system in the city, which, through providing access to essential activities, enables diverse women and men, girls and boys to “appropriate” their right to the city and to realize a fully rounded and substantive urban citizenship. Yet, despite decades of work on gender in urban development and urban planning, mainstream transport planning still remains largely untouched by debates on diversity and difference in cities. The tendency to focus on the economic and now environmental aspects continues to dominate urban transport. In contrast, concerns for the identity of urban residents or “users” are addressed through, and ultimately marginalized to, “the social” and distributional aspects of urban transport planning. This chapter argues that the distributional aspects of transport are cross-cutting, and go beyond the disaggregation of transport users by social relations such as class, gender, age and ethnicity. The social identities of transport “users” are deeply embedded in social relations and urban practices, the latter ranging from the everyday lives of people to urban policies and planning. Furthermore, in transport, these social relations are played out in public space, with implications for how diverse women and men, girls and boys are able to exercise individual and collective “travel choice” and negotiate access to essential activities in the city. Recognition of these processes, as reflected in the “deep distribution” of the transport system, is essential to reframing the notion of “travel choice” and, ultimately, to urban transport and urban planning that is committed to social justice in cities.

Keywords

Gender Deep distribution Right to the city Transport Travel choice 

References

  1. Anand, A., & Tiwari, G. (2006). A gendered perspective of the shelter−transport−livelihood link: The case of poor women in Delhi. Transport Reviews, 26(1), 63–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arabindoo, P. (2010). In T. Bastia, M. Lombard, H. Jabeen, G. Sou and N. Banks with inputs from the contributors and workshop convenors, C. O. N. Moser, & M. Herbert, Right to the city workshop report. Manchester: Urban Rights Group, University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  3. Avineri, E. (2012). On the use and potential of behavioural economics from the perspective of transport and climate change. Journal of Transport Geography, 24, 512–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benería, L. (1979). Reproduction, production and the sexual division of labour. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 3, 203–225.Google Scholar
  5. Bondi, L., & Peake, L. (1988). Gender and the city: Urban politics revisited. In J. Little, L. Peake, & P. Richardson (Eds.), Women in cities: Gender and the urban environment (pp. 21–40). London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Booth, C., & Richardson, T. (2001). Placing the public in integrated transport planning. Transport Policy, 8, 141–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burra, S. (1999). Resettlement and rehabilitation of the urban poor: The story of Kanjur Marg. DPU Working Paper No 99, DPU, University College London.Google Scholar
  8. Cattan, N. (2008). Gendering mobilities: Insights into the construction of spatial concepts. In T. P. Uteng & T. Cresswell (Eds.), Gendered mobilities. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  9. Cresswell, T., & Uteng, T. P. (2008). Gendered mobilities: Towards an holistic understanding. In T. P. Uteng & T. Cresswell (Eds.), Gendered mobilities. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  10. Docherty, I., Shaw, J., & Gather, M. (2004). State intervention in contemporary transport. Journal of Transport Geography, 12(4), 257–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. El Nahry, F. (2012). She’s not asking for it: Street harassment and women in public spaces. Gender across borders: A global voice for gender justice. Available at http://www.genderacrossborders.com/2012/03/20/shes-not-asking-for-it-streetharassment-and-women-in-public-spaces/
  12. Gómes, L. (1997). “Schedules for Lima public transportation”, cited in GTZ (2007), Gender and urban transport: Smart and affordable. Sustainable transport: A sourcebook for policy makers in developing cities. Available at http://www.itdp.org/documents/7aGenderUT%28Sept%29300.pdf. 141–149.
  13. GTZ. (2007). Gender and urban transport: Smart and affordable. Sustainable transport: A sourcebook for policy makers in developing cities. Available at http://www.itdp.org/documents/7aGenderUT%28Sept%29300.pdf
  14. Hanson, S. (2010). Gender and mobility: New approaches for informing sustainability. Gender, Place and Culture, 17(1), 5–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hanson, S., & Pratt, G. (1995). Gender, work and space. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Harris, O., & Young, K. (1981). Engendered structures: Some problems in the analysis of reproduction. In J. S. Kahn & J. R. Llobera (Eds.), The anthropology of pre-capitalist societies. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  17. Harvey, D. (2008). The right to the city. New Left Review, 53, 23–40.Google Scholar
  18. Hasan, A. (2006). Livelihood substitution: The case of the Lyari Expressway. Karachi: Ushba International Publishing.Google Scholar
  19. Hodgson, F. C., & Turner, J. (2003). Participation not consumption: The need for new participatory practices to address transport and social exclusion. Transport Policy, 10, 265–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jones, P., & Lucas, K. (2012). The social consequences of transport decision-making: Clarifying concepts, synthesizing knowledge and assessing implications. Journal of Transport Geography, 21, 4–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kandiyoti, D. (1988). Bargaining with patriarchy. Gender and Society, 2(3), 274–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Law, R. (1999). Beyond ‘women and transport’: Towards new geographies of gender and daily mobility. Progress in Human Geography, 23(4), 567–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lefebvre, H. (1991). The production of space. Oxford/Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  24. Lefebvre, H. (1996). Writings on cities. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  25. Leinbach, T. R. (2000). Mobility in development context: Changing perspectives, new interpretations and the real issues. Journal of Transport Geography, 8(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Levitas, R., Pantazis, C., Fahmy, E., Gordon, D., Lloyd, E., & Patsios, D. (2007). The multi-dimensional analysis of social exclusion. Project report. University of Bristol.Google Scholar
  27. Levy, C. (1991). Towards gender aware urban transport planning, gender and Third World development training package, module 5. Brighton: IDS Publications.Google Scholar
  28. Levy, C. (1992). Transport. In L. Ostergaard (Ed.), Gender and development, Chapter 6 (pp. 94–109). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Levy, C. (2009). Gender justice in a diversity approach to development? The challenges for development planning, (viewpoint). International Development Planning Review, 31(4), i–xi.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Little, J., Peake, L., & Richardson, P. (1988). Women in cities: Gender and the urban environment. London: Macmillan Education.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lucas, K. (2011). Making the connections between transport disadvantage and social exclusion of low-income populations in the Tshwane region of South Africa. Journal of Transport Geography, 19, 1320–1334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Marcuse, P. (2010). From critical urban theory to the right to the city. City, 13(2–3), 185–197.Google Scholar
  33. Marome, W. (2009). A gendered spatial analysis of the relationship between women’s productive work and women’s autonomy in the household: Understanding women’s agency in public and private space in a Bangkok soi. PhD thesis, University College London.Google Scholar
  34. Mitchell, D. (2003). The right to the city: Social justice and the fight for public space. New York/London: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  35. Mitlin, D. (2010). In T. Bastia, M. Lombard, H. Jabeen, G. Sou and N. Banks, with inputs from the contributors and workshop convenors, C. O. N. Moser, & M. Herbert, Right to the city workshop report. Manchester: Urban Rights Group, University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  36. Moser, C. O. N. (1987). Mobilization is women’s work: Struggles for infrastructure in Guayaquil, Ecuador. In C. Moser & L. Peake (Eds.), Women, human settlements and housing (pp. 166–194). London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  37. Moser, C. O. N. (1989). Gender planning in the Third World: Meeting practical and strategic gender needs. World Development, 17(2), 1799–1825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Murthy, K. (2011). Urban transport and the right to the city: Accessibility and mobility. In M.-H. Zérah, V. Dupont, & S. Tawa Lama-Rewal (Eds.), Urban policies and the right to the city in India: Rights, responsibilities and citizenship (pp. 122–132). New Delhi: UNESCO/CSH.Google Scholar
  39. Parnell, S., & Pieterse, E. (2010). The right to the city: Institutional imperatives of the development state. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 34(1), 146–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Patel, S., d’Cruz, C., & Burra, S. (2002). Beyond evictions in a global city: People managed settlement in Mumbai. Environment and Urbanization, 14(1), 159–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Preston, J., & Rajé, F. (2007). Accessibility, mobility and transport-related social exclusion. Journal of Transport Geography, 15(3), 151–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ruiz Castro, M. F. (2009). Empowerment and gender in the workplace: Experiences in accounting and IT firms in Mexico. PhD thesis, University College London, 310 p.Google Scholar
  43. Salon, D., & Gulyani, S. (2010). Mobility, poverty and gender: ‘Travel choices’ of slum residents in Nairobi, Kenya. Transport Reviews, 30(5), 641–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Srinivasan, S., & Rogers, P. (2005). Travel behaviour of low-income residents: Studying two contrasting locations in the city of Chennai, India. Journal of Transport Geography, 13, 265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stanley, J., and Lucas, K., 2008. Social exclusion: What can public transport offer?. Research in Transportation Economics, 22(1), pp. 36–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Stanley, J., & Vella-Brodrick, D. (2009). The usefulness of social exclusion to inform social policy in transport. Transport Policy, 16, 90–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tran, H. A., & Schlyter, A. (2010). Gender and class in urban transport: The cases of Xian and Hanoi. Environment and Urbanization, 22(1), 139–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Van Deusen, R. (2002, June 1). Urban design and the production of space in Syracuse, New York. Paper presented at the right to the city conference, Rome.Google Scholar
  49. Vasconcellos, E. (2001). Urban transport: Environment and equity: The case for developing countries. London/Sterling: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  50. Venter, C., Vokolkova, V., & Michalek, J. (2007). Gender, residential location and household travel: Empirical findings from low-income urban settlements in Durban, South Africa. Transport Reviews, 27(6), 653–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zérah, M.-H., Tawa Lama-Rewal, S., Dupont, V., & Chaudhuri, B. (2011). Introduction: The right to the city and urban citizenship in the Indian context. In M.-H. Zérah, V. Dupont, & S. Tawa Lama-Rewal (Eds.), Urban policies and the right to the city in India: Rights, responsibilities and citizenship (pp. 1–11). New Delhi: UNESCO/CSH.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations