Advertisement

Finding Commonalities Amidst Increasing Differences in Canadian and U.S. Immigration Policies

  • Tamara M. WorobyEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Canada and International Affairs book series (CIAF)

Abstract

Although Canada and the United States share a many-centuries long tradition of receiving the world’s migrants, since the 1960s they have, in fact, moved along differing immigration policy paths. These differences have existed for a long time, but have become more obvious and pronounced since 2017, under the Trump administration. This paper compares immigration policy in the two countries, and finds the similarities to be few and the differences more numerous and substantive. As the United States moves towards clamping down on undocumented migration and, for the first time in decades, reducing legal immigration, Canada is accepting increasing numbers of refugees and raising annual immigrant admissions by over fifty percent. Finding common ground is likely to be more difficult than in the past. One commonality that exists, and is unlikely to diminish, is an increased concern about uncontrolled border crossings on each country’s southern border. Like it or not, Canadian policymakers will find themselves dealing with a number of repercussions as the result of the United States becoming less welcoming to foreigners.

References

  1. Arthur, Andrew. 2017. Half of the Illegal Population Are Visa Overstayers? Washington, DC: Center for Immigration Studies.Google Scholar
  2. Batara, Carlos. 2016. “Citizenship and Midwives: A Government Witch Hunt?” Private Law Website. https://www.bataraimmigrationlaw.com/citizenship-birth-by-midwife.
  3. Beach, Charles, Alan Green, and Christopher Worswick. 2011. Towards Improving Canada’s Skilled Immigration Policy: An Evaluation Approach. Toronto: C. D. Howe Institute.Google Scholar
  4. Bier, David. 2018. New U.S. Immigrants Are as Educated as New Canadian Immigrants. Washington, DC: Cato Institute.Google Scholar
  5. Bloemraad, Irene. 2006. Becoming a Citizen: Incorporating Immigrants and Refugees in the United States and Canada. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bolter, Jessica, and Doris Meissner. 2018. Crisis at the Border? Not by the Numbers. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  7. Brenner, Katie, and Caitlin Dickerson. 2018. “Sessions Says Domestic and Gang Vilence Are Not Grounds for Asylum.” New York Times, June 11.Google Scholar
  8. Cadman, Dan. 2016. Lessons Learned by an Insider in the Thirty Years Since IRCA. Washington, DC: Center for Immigration Studies.Google Scholar
  9. Canadian Citizenship and Immigration Resource Center. 2018. “Canada to Expand Provincial Nomination Programs by 33% Over Three Years.” Immigration.ca., April 24. https://www.immigration.ca/canada-to-expand-provincial-nomination-programs-pnp-by-33-over-three-years/.
  10. Capps, Randy, Michael Fix, and Jie Zong. 2016. A Profile of U.S. Children with Unauthorized Immigrant Parents. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  11. Connor, Phillip, and Gustavo Lopez. 2016. Five Facts About the U.S. Rank in Worldwide Migration. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  12. Dangerfield, Katie. 2018. “Conservatives Want to End Birth Tourism in Canada.” Global News, August 27.Google Scholar
  13. Epps, Garrett. 2018. “The Ghost of Chae Chan Ping.” The Atlantic Magazine, January 20.Google Scholar
  14. Etehad, Melissa. 2018. “The Trump Administration Wants More Than 400,000 People to Leave the U.S.” Los Angeles Times, July 19.Google Scholar
  15. Feere, Jon. 2010. Birthright Citizenship in the United States: A Global Comparison. Washington, DC: Center for Immigration Studies.Google Scholar
  16. Florida, Richard. 2015. “America’s Leading Immigrant Cities.” City Lab, September 22.Google Scholar
  17. Friedman, Uri. 2018. “The World Bargain on Asylum Is Unravelling.” The Atlantic, June 29.Google Scholar
  18. Gonzales-Barrera, Ana. 2015. More Mexicans Leaving Than Coming to the U.S. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  19. Government of Canada. 2014. Bill C-24. Strengthening Canadian Citizenship Act. Ottawa: Parliament of Canada. http://www.parl.ca/LegisInfo/BillDetails.aspx?Bill=C24&Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=41&Ses=2.
  20. Government of Canada. 2017. Bill C-6. An Act to Amend the Citizenship Act. Ottawa: Parliament of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/news/2017/06/bill_c-6_receivesroyalassent0.html.
  21. Government of Canada. 2018. Report of the Independent Review of the Immigration and Refugee Board: A Systems Management Approach to Asylum. Ottawa: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/ircc/migration/ircc/english/pdf/pub/irb-report-en.pdf.
  22. Green, Alan. 1976. Immigration and the Post-war Canadian Economy. Toronto: Macmillan Company of Canada.Google Scholar
  23. Harell, Allison, Stuart Soroka, and Shanto Iyengar. 2016. “Locus of Control and Anti-immigrant Sentiment in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom.” Political Psychology 32 (2) (April): 245–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hemmadi, Murad. 2018. “Doug Ford, Jagmeet Singh and the Myth of the Ethnic Vote.” Macleans Magazine, May 29.Google Scholar
  25. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. 2016. Data and Tables on Immigration. Ottawa: Government of Canada. https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/ad975a26-df23-456a-8ada-756191a23695?_ga=1.170867744.1072341697.1487947220.
  26. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. 2017. Facts and Figures 2016. Ottawa: Government of Canada. http://www.cic.gc.ca/opendata-donneesouvertes/data/Facts_and_Figures_2016_PR_EN.pdf.
  27. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. 2018a. Asylum Claims. Ottawa: Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/services/refugees/asylum-claims.html.
  28. Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. 2018b. Final Text of the Safe Third Country Agreement. Ottawa: Government of Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/mandate/policies-operational-instructions-agreements/agreements/safe-third-country-agreement/final-text.html.
  29. Kandel, William. 2014. U.S. Naturalization Policy. Congressional Research Service. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43366.pdf.
  30. Korzinski, David. 2018. “Immigration in Canada: Does Recent Change in Forty Year Opinion Trend Signal a Blip or a Breaking Point?” Vancouver: Angus Reid Institute. http://angusreid.org/canadian-immigration-trend-data/.
  31. Krauthammer, Charles. 2016. “Trump’s Proposals for Immigration, Radical? Hardly.” Jewish World Review, September 6.Google Scholar
  32. Krogstad, Jens Manuel, Jeffrey. S. Passel, and D’Vera Cohn. 2017. Five Facts About Illegal Immigration in the U.S. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  33. Lopez, Gustavo, and Jynnah Radford. 2017. Statistical Portrait of the Foreign-Born in the United States. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  34. Lopez, Gustavo, and Kirsten Bialik. 2017. Key Findings About U.S. Immigration. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2017/05/03/facts-on-u-s-immigrants-current-data/.
  35. McFadden, Cynthia. 2018. “Birth Tourism Brings Russian Baby Boom to Miami.” NBC News, January 10.Google Scholar
  36. Migration Information Source. 2018. Country Data. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute. www.migrationinformation.org/globaldata/countrydata/data.cfm.
  37. National Conference of State Legislatures. 2018. Snapshot of U.S. Immigration 2017. http://www.ncsl.org/research/immigration/snapshot-of-u-s-immigration-2017.aspx.
  38. OECD. 2011. Naturalization: A Passport for the Better Integration of Immigrants? Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  39. OECD. 2018. International Migration Outlook. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  40. Passel, Jeffrey, and D’Vera Cohn. 2012. Unauthorized Immigrants: 11.1 Million in 2011. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center.Google Scholar
  41. Pendakur, Krishna, and Rave Pendakur. 2011. “Color by Numbers: Minority Earnings in Canada 1995–2005.” Journal of International Migration and Integration 12: 305–329.Google Scholar
  42. ProCon.org. 2013. Illegal Immigration Around the World: Thirteen Countries Compared to the United States. Santa Monica: ProCon. https://immigration.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=005235.
  43. Ramakrishnan, Karthick. 2016. “How Asian Americans Became Democrats.” American Prospect, July 26. http://prospect.org/article/how-asian-americans-became-democrats-0.
  44. Scotti, Monique. 2017. “Canadian Government Wants 310,000 Immigrants in 2018, 340,000 a Year by 2020.” Global News, November 1.Google Scholar
  45. Statistics Canada. 2011. Divergent Trends in Citizenship Rates Among Immigrants in the United States and Canada. Ottawa: Government of Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11f0019m/2011338/part-partie1-eng.htm#h2_5.
  46. Statistics Canada. 2016. Census of the Population 2016. Ottawa: Government of Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/171025/t002b-eng.htm.
  47. Statistics Canada. 2017a. Education in Canada: Key Results from the 2016 Census. Ottawa: Government of Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/171129/dq171129a-eng.htm.
  48. Statistics Canada. 2017b. Immigrations and Ethnocultural Diversity: Key Results from the 2016 Census. Ottawa: Government of Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/171025/dq171025b-eng.htm.
  49. Statistics Canada. 2018. Data Table 13010-0414-01—Live Births by Place of Residence. Ottawa: Government of Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=1310041401.
  50. Sieff, Kevin. 2018. “U.S. Is Denying Passports to Americans Along the Border, Throwing Their Citizenship into Question.” Washington Post, September 1. Google Scholar
  51. United Nations. 2018. The World in Numbers. Geneva: UNHCR Statistics. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview.
  52. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). 2011. The 1951 Refugee Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and Its 1967 Protocol. Geneva: UNHCR. http://www.unhcr.org/en-us/about-us/background/4ec262df9/1951-convention-relating-status-refugees-its-1967-protocol.html.
  53. U.S. Census Bureau. 2017. American FactFinder. American Community Survey (ACS). Washington, DC: Government of the United States. https://www.census.gov/acs/www/data/data-tables-and-tools/american-factfinder.
  54. U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). 2017. 2016 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics. Washington, DC: DHS Office of Immigration Statistics.Google Scholar
  55. U.S. Department of Transportation. 2018. Border Crossing/Entry Data. Washington, DC: Bureau of Transportation Statistics. https://www.bts.gov/content/border-crossingentry-data.
  56. U.S. Senate. 2013. Bill S.744—The Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act. Washington, DC. June.Google Scholar
  57. World Bank. 2017. 2017 World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.Google Scholar
  58. Woroby, Tamara, and Melissa Groves. 2016. “The Naturalization Rates of U.S. Immigrants: Why Citizenship Rates Differ by State.” Review of Social Sciences 01 (07): 11–20.Google Scholar
  59. Worswick, Christopher. 2013. Improving Canadian Immigrant Selection: Further Changes Are Required Before Increasing Inflow. Toronto: C.D. Howe Institute.Google Scholar
  60. Wright, Teresa. 2018. “Fact Check: Are a Majority of Asylum Seekers to Canada Doomed to Rejection?” The Canadian Press, June 29. https://www.ctvnews.ca/mobile/politics/fact-check-are-a-majority-of-asylum-seekers-to-canada-doomed-to-rejection-1.3994539.
  61. Yang, P. Q. 1994. Explaining Immigrant Naturalization. International Migration Review 28 (3): 449–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zong, Jie, and Jeanne Batalova. 2016. Mexican Immigration in the United States. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International StudiesJohns Hopkins UniversityWashington, DCUSA
  2. 2.Towson UniversityBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations