The Impact of New Media (Digital) and Globalisation on Nollywood
The focus of this chapter is to examine, and highlight, how two major forces—new technologies and globalisation—have impacted (and are still impacting) upon the Nigerian film industry (also known as Nollywood). In exploring the nature of these impacts, the focus will be mainly on the production and distribution (i.e., the general marketing activities) aspects of the value chain. Methodologically, in addition to relying on personal accounts based on the experience of one of the authors who has worked in the Nigerian film and TV industry for decades, anecdotal evidence of the impact of technology (notably digitalisation) and globalisation on the sector is derived from commentaries of five individuals with knowledge about developments in the sector. Excerpts from the interviews cut across the film value chain—from production, distribution, and marketing of the “cultural” product (i.e., movies), to the internationalisation of the same. Consequently, the chapter is split into three broad sections—covering digital production, digital distribution, and digital marketing of Nigerian movies to both domestic and international (including the Nigerian diaspora) audiences.
KeywordsDigital Nollywood Film marketing Independent film value chain Nigerian movies
- Adibe, J. (2014). MINT, Re-based GDP and Poverty: A Commentary on the Identity Crisis in Africa’s Largest Economy. African Journal of Business and Economic Research, 9(1), 119–134.Google Scholar
- Akoh, B. (2014). The Cost of Deploying a Successful Video Broadband Business in Africa and the Cost of Not Deploying: Domestic and Transborder Implications and Applications. In Broadband as a Video Platform (pp. 51–65). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
- Arthur, T. (2016a). The Reimagined Paradise: African Immigrants in the United States, Nollywood Film, and the Digital Remediation of ‘Home’. Doctoral dissertation, Bowling Green State University.Google Scholar
- Arthur, T. (2016b). Nollywood Afrogeeks: Nigerian Cinema, Digital Diasporas, and African Immigrants in the United States. International Journal of E-Politics, 7(3), 49–64.Google Scholar
- Augoye, J. (2018, April 4). Hollywood Actor John Boyega Plans N8 Billion Nollywood Movie. Premium Times. Retrieved April 15, 2018, from https://www.premiumtimesng.com/entertainment/nollywood/264041-hollywood-actor-john-boyega-plans-n8-billion-nollywood-movie.html.
- Bamgbose, T. (2015). For Every Copy Sold, Nine are Fake. Can Nollywood Beat Piracy? [Online]. Retrieved March 13, 2017, from https://www.trueAfrica.com.
- Bisschoff, L. (2015). From Nollywood to New Nollywood: The Story of Nigeria’s Runaway Success [Online]. Retrieved March 13, 2017, from http://theconversation.com.
- Bloore, P. (2009). Re-defining the Independent Film Value Chain. UK Film Council. Retrieved from http://www.bfi.org.uk/sites/bfi.org.uk/files/downloads/redefining-the-independent-film-value-chain.pdf.
- British Film Institute. (2014, April 24). UK Film’s Contribution to UK GDP over £4.6b. Retrieved from https://www.bfi.org.uk/news/uk-film-s-contribution-uk-gdp-over-46b.
- Chapain, C., & Stachowiak, K. (2017). Innovation Dynamic in the Film Industry: The Case of the Soho Cluster in London. In Creative Industries in Europe (pp. 65–94). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
- Crissey, J. (2010). Any Value in the Chain. Unpublished Working Paper. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/637947/Any_value_in_the_chain
- Darbi, W. P. K., & Hall, C. M. (2014). Elite Interviews: Critical Practice and Tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 17(9), 832–848.Google Scholar
- Ferrer-Roca, N. (2014). Business Innovation in the Film Industry: A New Zealand Case Study. In R. DeFillippi & P. Wikström (Eds.), International Perspectives on Business Innovation and Disruption in the Creative Industries: Film, Video, and Photography (pp. 18–36). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
- Finney, A. (2010, June). Value Chain Restructuring in the Global Film Industry. In 4th Annual Conference on “Cultural Production in a Global Context: The Worldwide Film Industries”. Grenoble, France: Grenoble Ecole de Management.Google Scholar
- Goldstein, K. (2002). Getting in the Door: Sampling and Completing Elite Interviews. PS: Political Science & Politics, 35(4), 669–672.Google Scholar
- Grichnik, D., Brinckmann, J., Singh, L., & Manigart, S. (2014). Beyond Environmental Scarcity: Human and Social Capital as Driving Forces of Bootstrapping Activities. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(2), 310–326.Google Scholar
- Gubbins, M. (2012). Digital Revolution: Active Audiences and Fragmented Consumption. In Digital Disruption: Cinema Moves On-line (pp. 67–100). St Andrews: St Andrews Film Studies.Google Scholar
- Harvey, W. S. (2011). Strategies for Conducting Elite Interviews. Qualitative Research, 11(4), 431–441.Google Scholar
- Hayes, A. (2015). 20 Industries Threatened by Tech Disruption [Online]. Retrieved March 12, 2017, from http://www.investopedia.com/article/investing/020615/20-industries-threatened-tech-disruption.asp#ixzz4awiTOxli.
- Haynes, J. (2016). Nollywood: The Creation of Nigerian Film Genres. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Horst, S. O., Murschetz, P. C., Brennan, D. N., & Friedrichsen, M. (2018). TV Film Financing in the Era of “Connected TV”: How Do “Legacy” Broadcasters Respond to Market Changes? In Handbook of State Aid for Film (pp. 615–633). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
- Igwe, C. (2015). Nollywood: Second Largest Film Industry [Online]. Retrieved March 12, 2017, from https://www.britishcouncil.org/voices-magazine/nollywood-second-largest-film-industry.
- Jedlowski, A. (2016). Studying Media “From” the South: African Media Studies and Global Perspectives. Black Camera: An International Film Journal, 7(2), 174–193.Google Scholar
- Jonsson, S., & Lindbergh, J. (2013). The Development of Social Capital and Financing of Entrepreneurial Firms: From Financial Bootstrapping to Bank Funding. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 37(4), 661–686.Google Scholar
- Lam, W. (2010). Funding Gap, What Funding Gap? Financial Bootstrapping: Supply, Demand and Creation of Entrepreneurial Finance. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 16(4), 268–295.Google Scholar
- Madichie, N. (2010). The Nigerian Movie Industry “Nollywood”—A Nearly Perfect Marketing Case Study. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 28(5), 625–649.Google Scholar
- Madichie, N. (2013). An Interview with Chidi Mokeme—Chief Executive Officer of Renegade Group, Chidi Mokeme Foundation & The GQ Wearhouse. Executive Opinion. African Journal of Business and Economic Research, 8(1), 163–167.Google Scholar
- Madichie, N. (2015). A Commentary on African Business & Economic Environment in 2015. African Journal of Business and Economic Research, 10(1), 5–24.Google Scholar
- Madichie, N., & Madichie, C. (2018). Changing Dynamics of Migrant Entrepreneurial Activities: Implications for the African Diaspora and the UN SDGs. Paper presented at the Migration, Inter-Connectivity and Regional Development (MICaRD) Symposium. Regional Studies Association, University of Lincoln, April 26. SSRN. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3170064.
- Mikecz, R. (2012). Interviewing Elites: Addressing Methodological Issues. Qualitative Inquiry, 18(6), 482–493.Google Scholar
- Omanufeme, S. (2016). Runaway Success—Finance & Development [Online]. Vol. 53, No. 2. Retrieved March 12, 2017, from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2016/06/omanufeme.htm.
- Onookome, O., & Matthias, K. (2013). Global Nollywood: The Transnational Dimensions of an African Video Film Industry. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
- Pardo, A. (2015). From the Big Screen to the Small Ones: How Digitization is Transforming the Distribution, Exhibition and Consumption of Movies. In Besides the Screen (pp. 23–45). London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Parsons, A., Zeisser, M., & Waitman, R. (1998). Organizing Today for the Digital Marketing of Tomorrow. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 12(1), 31–46.Google Scholar
- Richards, D. (1996). Elite Interviewing: Approaches and Pitfalls. Politics, 16(3), 199–204.Google Scholar
- Rutherford, M. W., Pollack, J. M., Mazzei, M. J., & Sanchez-Ruiz, P. (2017). Bootstrapping: Reviewing the Literature, Clarifying the Construct, and Charting a New Path Forward. Group & Organization Management, 42(5), 657–706.Google Scholar
- Soroczynski, V. (2012, November 12). Nollywood 2.0: How Tech is Making Africa’s Movie Industry a Global Leader. Retrieved from http://ventureburn.com/2012/11/nollywood-2-0-how-tech-is-making-africas-movie-industry-a-global-leader/.
- Stoller, T., & Wray, E. (2017). 1984 and All That: The Impact of Political Change on Independent Radio in the UK. Communication Journal of New Zealand, 11(1), 22–36.Google Scholar
- UK Film Council. (2004). UK Film Council Statistical Yearbook: Annual Review 2003/4. Retrieved from http://www.bfi.org.uk/sites/bfi.org.uk/files/downloads/uk-film-council-statistical-yearbook-annual-review-2003-2004.pdf.
- Ulin, J. (2010). The Business of Media Distribution: Monetizing Film, TV, and Video Content in an Online World. Burlington, MA: Focal Press.Google Scholar
- Uzo, U., & Mair, J. (2014). Source and Patterns of Organizational Defiance of Formal Institutions: Insights from Nollywood, the Nigerian Movie Industry. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 8(1), 56–74.Google Scholar
- YouTube. (2018, April 5). John Boyega Plans on Producing Nigerian Stories For The Big Screen | Pulse TV. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/jJiM5bJqtBo.
- Zoe, F. (2016). How Technology Revolutionising Africa Entertainment Industry, Film Industry [Online]. Retrieved March 08, 2017, from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/aug/06/how-technology-revolutionising-africa-entertainment-industry-film-tv.