Summary of the Papers and Relevance of Mixed Methods for Resourcing the Commons

  • Janet McIntyre-Mills
  • Norma R. A. Romm
Part of the Contemporary Systems Thinking book series (CST)


The aim of the research underpinning the two companion volumes, subtitled ‘We are the land and the waters’ and ‘Getting lost in the city’, is to develop a new paradigm for reconstructing a sense of political community within and beyond the nation state. The focus will be on democratic and governance theory and practice to protect the commons.


Commons Process norms Interconnected survival 


  1. Australian Foreign Policy White Paper. (2017). Opportunity, security and strength.Google Scholar
  2. Banathy, B. H. (1991). Systems design of education: A journey to create the future. Englewood Cliffs: Educational Technology.Google Scholar
  3. Bacchi, C. (2009). Analysing policy. What is the problem represented to be? New South Wales: Pearson.Google Scholar
  4. Berger, P., & Luckmann. (1966). The social construction of reality. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  5. Binkley, S. (2008, Sep). Liquid consumption anti-consumerism and the fetishizedde-fetishization of commodities. Cultural Studies, 22(5), 599–623. Scholar
  6. Bird Rose, D. (2015). The ecological humanities. In K. Gibson, D. Bird Rose, & R. Fincher (Eds.), Manifesto for living in the Anthropocene. New York: Punctum books.Google Scholar
  7. Bush, G. W. (2002). 41A Portrait of my father (294p). New York: Crown Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. Battersby, J. (2012). Beyond the food desert: Finding ways to speak about urban food security in South Africa. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 94(2), 141–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Battersby, J. (2017). MDGs to SDGs – New goals, same gaps: The continued absence of urban food security in the Post-2015 global development agenda. African Geographical Review, 36, 115–129. Retrieved from
  10. Bollier, D and Helfrich, S, 2012. The Commons Strategies Group. Levellers Press. MA.Google Scholar
  11. Bostrom, N. (2011). Existential risk prevention as the most important task for humanity. Retrieved from
  12. Boulding, K. E. (1966). The economics of the coming spaceship earth. Environmental quality issues in a growing economy. In H. Jarrett (Ed.), Environmental quality in a growing economy (pp. 3–14). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Chilisa, B. (2012). Indigenous research methodologies. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Christakis, A., & Flanagan, T. (2010). The talking point: Collaborative project of global agoras. Greenwich: Information Age.Google Scholar
  15. Christakis, A. N. (2004). Wisdom of the people. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 21(5), 479–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cisneros, R. T., & Hisijara, B. A. (2013). A social systems approach to global problems. Cincinnati: Institute for 21st Century Agoras.Google Scholar
  17. Cram, F., Chilisa, B., & Mertens, D. M. (2013). The journey begins. In D. M. Mertens, F. Cram, & B. Chilisa (Eds.), Indigenous pathways into social research (pp. 11–40). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  18. Cram, F., & Mertens, D. M. (2015). Transformative and Indigenous frameworks for multimethod and mixed methods research. In S. Hesse-Biber, & R. B. Johnson (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of multimethod and mixed methods research inquiry (pp. 91–109). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Cram, F. (2015). Harnessing global social justice and social change. In S. Hesse-Biber & R. B. Johnson (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of multimethod and mixed methods research inquiry (pp. 677–687). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Crush, J., & Riley, L. (2017). Urban food security and urban bias. Hungry Cities Partnership. Discussion Paper No 11.Google Scholar
  21. Cruz, I., Stahel, A., & Max-Neef, M. (2009). Towards a systemic development approach: Building on the human scale development paradigm. Ecological Economics, 68(7), 2021–2030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Churchman, C. W. (1968). The systems approach. New York: Delta/Dell Publishing.Google Scholar
  23. Churchman, C. W. (1971). The design of inquiring systems: Basic concepts of systems and organisations. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  24. Churchman, C. W. (1979). The systems approach and its enemies. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  25. Churchman, C. W. (1982). Thought and wisdom. Seaside: Intersystems Publications.Google Scholar
  26. Dobson, A. (2007). Environmental citizenship: Towards sustainable development. Sustainable Development, 15, 276–285. Scholar
  27. Dobson, A. (2012). Listening: The new democratic deficit. Political Science, 60, 843–859. Scholar
  28. Dobson, A., & Eckersley, R. (2006). Political theory and the ecological challenge. Cambridge University Press, 10 Aug 2006—Political Science.Google Scholar
  29. Dryzek, J. (2010). Green democracy. Cunningham lecture series, ANU, Occasional paper. Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  30. Ehrlich, P., & Ehrlich, A. (2013). Can a collapse of global civilization be avoided? Proceedings of the Royal Society of Biological Sciences, 280, 20122845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Figueres, C. (2017). Spokesperson for United Nations is missing it appears in Anderson, J. 2017 Nature’s new ambassador: A conversation with Christiana Figueres.
  32. Flannery, T. (2012). After the future: Australia’s new extinction crisis. Quarterly Essay, 48.Google Scholar
  33. Ford, J. D., Berrang-Ford, L., Bunce, A., et al. (2015). The status of climate changeadaptation in Africa and Asia. Regional Environmental Change, 15(5), 801-814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Foucault, M., & Gordon, C. (Eds.). (1980). Power/knowledge. Harvester: Brighton.Google Scholar
  35. Finn, J. (2016). Human trafficking and natural disasters: Exploiting misery. International Affairs Review, 24, 80–99.Google Scholar
  36. Fusch, P. I., & Ness, L. R. (2015). Are we there yet? Data saturation in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 20(9), 1408–1416. Retrieved from
  37. Gardner, H. (2008). Multiple intelligences: New horizons in theory and practice. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  38. Gebbie, K., et al. (2012). The Disaster Resilience Scorecard. Retrieved from
  39. Gebbie, K., Arbon, P., & Cusack, L. (2014). Developing a model and tool to measure community disaster resilience. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 29(4), 12–16.Google Scholar
  40. Gibson-Graham, J. K., & Miller, E. (2015). Economy as ecological livelihood. In K. Gibson, D. Bird Rose, & R. Fincher (Eds.), Manifesto for living in the anthropocene. Brooklyn: Punctum Books.Google Scholar
  41. Haraway, D. (1991). Cyborgs, simians, and women: The reinvention of nature. London: Free Association Books.Google Scholar
  42. Harper, S. (2016). How population change will transform our world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Hay, I. M., & Beaverstock, J. (Eds.). (2016). Handbook on wealth and the super-rich. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  44. Hesse-Biber, S. (2010). Qualitative approaches to mixed methods practice. Retrieved from Scholar
  45. Hosgelen, M., & Saikia, U. (2014). Forest reliance as a livelihood strategy in Timor-Leste. In: H. Loney, A. da Silva, N. Mendes, A. da Costa Ximenes, C. Fernandes (Eds.), Proceedings of the Understanding Timor-Leste 2013 Conference. Timor-Leste Studies Association. Understanding Timor-Leste 2013. Dili, Timor-Leste, July 2013, pp. 66–73.Google Scholar
  46. Hulme, M. (2009). Why we disagree about climate change. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  47. IOM. (2015). International Organisation for Migration. Retrieved from
  48. Jones, P. H. (2014). Systemic design principles for complex social systems. In G. Metcalf (Ed.), Social systems and design (pp. 91–128). Tokyo: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kovach, M. (2009). Indigenous methodologies: Characteristics, conversations, and contexts. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  50. Marella, M. R. (2017). The commons as a legal concept. Law and Critique, 28, 61–86. Scholar
  51. Max-Neef, M. (1991). Human scale development. London: Apex.Google Scholar
  52. McIntyre-Mills, J. (2003). Critical systemic praxis. For social and environmental justice: Participatory policy design for a global age (The contemporary systems series). London: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. McIntyre-Mills, J. (2006). Systemic governance and accountability: Working and reworking the conceptual and spatial boundaries of international relations and governance (C. West Churchman and related works series) (Vol. 3). London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McIntyre-Mills, J. (2008). User-centric design to meet complex needs. New York: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  55. McIntyre-Mills, J. (2012). Anthropocentricism and wellbeing: A way out of the lobster pot? Systems Research and Behavioural Science. Published online in Wiley online library. ( Scholar
  56. McIntyre-Mills, J., & de Vries, D. (2012). Transformation from Wall Street to well-being. Systems Research and Behavioural Science. First published online: October 10, 2012. Scholar
  57. McIntyre-Mills, J. (2014). Systemic ethics and non-anthropocentric stewardship. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McIntyre-Mills, J. (2017). Planetary passport. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McIntyre-Mills, J., De Vries, & Binchai, N. (2014). Transformation from wall street to wellbeing. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McIntyre-Mills, J., Romm, N., & Corcoran-Nantes, Y. (Eds.). (2017). Balancing individualism and collectivism: Supporting social and environmental justice. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  61. Meadows, D., & Randers, J. (1992). Beyond the limits: Global collapse of a sustainable future. London: Earthscan Publications.Google Scholar
  62. Mertens, D. (2016). Assumptions at the philosophical and programmatic levels. Evaluation and Program Planning. Scholar
  63. Mertens, D. M. (2009). Transformative research and evaluation. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  64. Mertens, D. M. (2010). Transformative mixed methods research. Qualitative Inquiry, 16(6), 469–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Midgley, G. (2001). Systems thinking for the 21st century (pp. 249–256). New York: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  66. Midgley, G. (2000). Systemic intervention: Philosophy, methodology, and practice. New York: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Midgley, G., Ahuriri-Driscoll, A., Foote, J., Hepi, M., Taimona, H., Rogers-Koroheke, M., Baker, V., Gregor, J., Gregory, W., Lange, M., Veth, J., Winstanley, A., & Wood, D. (2007). Practitioner identity in systemic intervention: Reflections on the promotion of environmental health through Māori community development. Systems Research and Behavioural Science, 24, 233–247. Scholar
  68. Midgley, G., & Lindhult, E. (2017). What is systemic innovation?. ISBN 978–1–906422-36-3, Research memorandum 99.Google Scholar
  69. Maathai, W. (2004). The green belt movement. New York: Lantern Books.Google Scholar
  70. Nussbaum, M. (2006). Frontiers of justice. London: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Nussbaum, M. (2011). Creating capabilities: The human development approach. London: The Belknap Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Norum, K. E. (2001). Appreciative design. Systems Research and Behavioral Science., 18(4), 323–333. Scholar
  73. Pauli, G. (2010). The blue economy: Report to the Club of Rome. New Mexico: Paradigm Publications.Google Scholar
  74. Podger, A., Wanna, J., Ma, J., & Su, T. (2012). Putting the citizens at the centre: Making government more responsive. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 71(2), 101–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Polanyi, M. (1966). The Tacit dimension. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Foreword by Amartya Sen, 2009.Google Scholar
  76. Polanyi, M. (1968). The great transformation: The political and economic origins of our time. New York: Renehart and Co.Google Scholar
  77. Raikhel, E. (2010). Multispecies ethnography. Cultural Anthropology, Somatosphere (Vol. 15). Retrieved from
  78. Rees, W., & Wakernagel, M. (2008). Urban ecological footprints.
  79. Romm, N. R. A. (2015). Reviewing the transformative paradigm: A critical systemic and relational (indigenous) lens. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 28(5), 411–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Romm, N. R. A. (2017). Foregrounding critical systemic and indigenous ways of collective knowing toward (re)directing the Anthropocene. In J. J. McIntyre-Mills, Y. Corcoran-Nantes, & N. R. A. Romm (Eds.), Balancing individualism and collectivism: Social and environmental justice (pp. 1–17). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  81. Romm, N. R. A., & Ngulube, P. (2015). Mixed methods research. In M. Gumbo & E. Mathipa (Eds.), Addressing research challenges (pp. 158–176). Johannesburg: Mosala-Masedi.Google Scholar
  82. Rose, D. B. (2005). Dislocating the frontier. Retrieved from; see
  83. Rusbridger, A. (2015). Why we are putting the climate threat to earth front and centre. The Guardian Weekly, 13(03), 15.Google Scholar
  84. Sen, A. (2000). Development as freedom. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  85. Sen, A. (2003). Development as capability expansion. In S. Fukuda-Parr & S. Kumar (Eds.), Readings in human development (pp. 41–58). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Sen, A. (2005). Human rights and capabilities. Journal of Human Development, 6(2), 151–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Shiva, V. (2012). Monocultures of the mind. Penang: Third World Network.Google Scholar
  88. Stiglitz, J., Sen, A., & Fitoussi, J. P. (2010). Mis-measuring our lives: Why the GDP doesn’t add up. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  89. Stern, N. (2007). The economics of climate change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ulrich, W., & Reynolds, M. (2010). Critical systems heuristics. In M. Reynolds & S. Holwell (Eds.), Systems approaches to managing change: A practical guide (pp. 242–292). London: Springer.Google Scholar
  91. UN. (2007). Declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples. Retrieved from
  92. United Nations Human Development Index. (2003). A compact among nations to end poverty. New York: UNDP, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  93. United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. (2015–2030). Sendai framework. Retrieved from
  94. United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. (2017). Retrieved from
  95. United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. (2017). Retrieved from
  96. United Nations. (2014). World urbanisation prospects: The 2014 revision. Retrieved from
  97. Usamah, M. (2014). Can the vulnerable be resilient? Co-existence of vulnerability and disaster resilience: Informal settlements in the Philippines. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. Scholar
  98. Von Foerster, H. (1995). Cybernetics of cybernetics (2nd ed.). Minneapolis: Future Systems.Google Scholar
  99. Wadsworth, Y. (2010). Building in research and evaluation. Human Inquiry for living systems. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  100. Weir, A. (2012). Collaborative approaches to regional governance—lessons from Victoria. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 71(4), 469–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wenger, E., White, N., & Smith, J. (2009). Digital habitats: Stewarding technology for communities. Portland: CP Square.Google Scholar
  102. Wilkinson, R., & Pickett, K. (2009). The spirit level. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  103. Zavestoski, S. (2002). Psychological bases of anticonsumption attitudes. Psychology and Marketing, 19(2), 149–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janet McIntyre-Mills
    • 1
  • Norma R. A. Romm
    • 2
  1. 1.Flinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.DABE, Sunnyside CampusUniversity of South AfricaPretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations