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Chronic Kidney Disease and Physical Activity

  • Anubhav Kumar
  • Puneet Narayan
  • Peter Kokkinos
Chapter

Abstract

Chronic kidney diseases are collectively characterized by abnormal kidney function or structure that persists for at least 3 months. The natural history of chronic kidney diseases is a progressive decline in kidney function over time. While many patients progress to end-stage renal disease with its grave consequence of requirement of dialysis or renal transplant for survival, all these patients are at high risk of cardiovascular complications and death. The prevalence of chronic and end-stage kidney diseases is increasing in the United States. There are several factors that commonly increase the risk of their development, including hypertension, both type I and II diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity. The majority of these risk factors have been shown to be favorably impacted by a healthy lifestyle. The role of improvements in physical activity, exercise, and cardiorespiratory fitness in positively impacting these risk factors is well established. Lifestyle interventions, including exercise, have been proposed to reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. Large epidemiological studies have demonstrated benefits in quality of life, physical endurance, and depression. However, interventional data remains limited. More rigorous, prospective trials are needed to determine the effect and optimal exercise strategy for these patients. This chapter will discuss the impact of physical activity, exercise, and cardiorespiratory fitness on prevention and progression of chronic kidney diseases.

Keywords

Chronic kidney disease CKD Exercise Physical activity Cardiorespiratory fitness 

Abbreviations

AER

Albumin excretion rate

ACR

Albumin-to-creatinine ratio

BP

Blood pressure

CKD

Chronic kidney diseases

CRF

Cardiorespiratory fitness

CV

Cardiovascular

DM2

Type II diabetes mellitus

eGFR

Estimated glomerular filtration rate

ESRD

End-stage renal disease

GFR

Glomerular filtration rate

HF

Heart failure

hsCRP

High-sensitivity C-reactive protein

HTN

Hypertension

KDQOL-SF

Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form

LV

Left ventricular

METs

Metabolic equivalents

PA

Physical activity

UACR

Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio

VO2 max

Peak oxygen uptake

5STS

Five-times sit-to-stand test time

6MWD

6-minute walk distance

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anubhav Kumar
    • 1
  • Puneet Narayan
    • 1
  • Peter Kokkinos
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Clinical Research Institute of Northern VirginiaBurkeUSA
  2. 2.Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of CardiologyWashington, DCUSA
  3. 3.Georgetown University School of MedicineWashington, DCUSA
  4. 4.Department of Kinesiology and HealthRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA
  5. 5.George Washington University School of Medicine and Health SciencesWashington, DCUSA
  6. 6.University of South Carolina, Department of Exercise Science, Arnold School of Public HealthColumbiaUSA

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