Advertisement

Subgovernments

  • Robert E. Forbis Jr.
Chapter

Abstract

Changes in federal domestic energy policy resulted in increased split-estate energy development. Documented from primary government documents and journalistic sources across three settings, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming, where the vast majority of split-estate energy development and conflict between ranching and energy development interests occurred, analysis of the data shows that the expansion of split-estate energy development raised the level of frustration with the BLM among ranchers. Their frustration is documented as a spiraling conflict via accounts of ranchers petitioning their state legislatures for protection from energy development as well as the Congressional record of the debate that ensued because of that conflict. Overall, as ranching interests turned to federal and state legislatures for protection, they found that elected officials now favored the interests of energy development and that the existing legal and regulatory frameworks also favored energy development. As a result, the formerly allied interests of ranching and energy developers began to compete for the attention and favor of elected officials as each sought control of the BLM’s land-use subgovernment.

Keywords

Congress Bureau of Land Management Federal regulation State legislature Surface Owner Protection Act Split-estate energy development 

References

  1. Alspach, C. M. (2002, Spring). Surface use by the mineral owner: How much accommodation is required under current oil and gas law? Oklahoma Law Review, 55, 89–110.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, D. (2009). Split-Estate: What You Don’t Know CAN Hurt You. [Documentary]. United States: Red Rock Pictures.Google Scholar
  3. Associated Press. (2005a, July 11). Split-estate law worried industry. Casper Star Tribune. Retrieved from http://www.trib.com/news/state-and-regional/article_22f16910-5778-52ec-a418-626d5da3efef.html
  4. Associated Press. (2005b, December 6). New split-estate law gets test. Casper Star Tribune. Retrieved from http://www.trib.com/news/state-and-regional/article_2ed7a174-6c46-5ae7-ae42-1be1061e8c07.html
  5. Bleizeffer, D. (2004a, September 21). Split estates bill takes shape [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://thewesterner.blogspot.com/2004/09/news-roundup-motorcyclists-stop-trail.html#links
  6. Bleizeffer, D. (2004b, October 22). Split-estate parties talk compensation. Casper Star Tribune. Retrieved from www.trib.com/news/state-and-regional/article_6882d79b-4d42-52b6-b304-2e0e6fb17ac2.html
  7. Bleizeffer, D. (2004c, November 11). Mineral owners fear surface protection bill. Casper Star Tribune. Retrieved from www.trib.com/news/state-and-regional/article_8922dd84-89a7-5da8-94c4-bc43db4898eb.html
  8. Bleizeffer, D. (2005, December 14). State hears first split-estate case; Oil and gas commission chairwoman reprimands lawyers. Casper Star Tribune. Retrieved from http://trib.com/news/state-and-regional/article_45771947-5c9f-5b65-96a1-ada48b763243.html
  9. Buckley, F. H. (Ed.). (1999). The fall and rise of freedom of contract. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bureau of Land Management. (n.d.). BLM News Room search: Bi-monthly lease sale. Retrieved from www.blm.gov/search/?query=bimonthly+lease+sale&submit=&adv=1&narrow=pr:default&pr=VALUE_HERE&dropXSL=yes
  11. Bureau of Land Management. (2007). Surface operating standards and guidelines for oil and gas exploration and development. Retrieved from http://www.blm.gov/wo/st/en/prog/energy/oil_and_gas/best_management_practices/gold_book.html
  12. Cater, D. (1964). Power in Washington. New York, NY: Random House.Google Scholar
  13. Clifford, H. (2001, November 5). Wyoming’s powder keg: Coalbed methane splinters the Powder River Basin. High Country ews. Retrieved from http://www.hcn.org/issues/214/10823
  14. Colorado Surface Owner Protection Act. (2007). LB 1252, Laws of Colorado.Google Scholar
  15. Competitive Leases. (1988). 43 C.F.R. pt. 3120.1-2, 3120.2-2, 3120.3-1, 3120.5-1.Google Scholar
  16. Congressional Hearings. (107th–110th Congresses). Retrieved from http://www.gpoaccess.gov/chearings/browse.html
  17. Davis, C. (2001). Western public lands and environmental politics (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  18. Department of Interior: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement. (n.d.). Surface mining law. Retrieved from http://www.osmre.gov/topic/SMCRA/SMCRA.shtm
  19. Douglas, A. R. (1990). The logic of congressional action. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Earthworks. (n.d.-a). Landowner stories. Retrieved from http://www.earthworksaction.org/landownerstories.cfm
  21. Earthworks. (n.d.-b). Surface owner protection legislation. Retrieved from http://www.earthworksaction.org/SOPLegislation.cfm
  22. Edelman, M. (1988). Constructing the political spectacle. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  23. Environmental Working Group. (2004). Who owns the West? Oil and gas leases. Retrieved from http://www.ewg.org/oil_and_gas/
  24. Evans, G. L. (1996). Comment: Texas landowners strike water—Surface estate remediation and legislatively enhanced liability in the oil patch—A proposal for optimum protection of groundwater resources from oil and gas exploration and production in Texas. Southern Texas Law Review, 37, 484–485, 515.Google Scholar
  25. Farquhar, B. (2002, November 10). Council told to fight for surface rights. Casper Star Tribune. Retrieved from www.trib.com/news/article_24a607ca-7903-516a-8803-28dc85a0992b.html
  26. Fitzgerald, T. (2008). Essays on split estate energy development. Montana State University. Retrieved from http://www.lib.umd.edu/drum/handle/1903/9707
  27. Fitzgerald, T. (2009). The role of split-estates in coalbed methane production. (Draft of forthcoming article) Retrieved from http://extranet.isnie.org/uploads/isnie2009/fitzgerald.pdf
  28. Freeman, J. L. (1965). The political process (2nd ed.). New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  29. Habermas, J. (1975). Legitimation crisis. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  30. Hageman, T. S. (1993). Comment: Environmental law: Comparing the effectiveness of oil and gas with coal surface damage statutes in Oklahoma: Bonding producers and operators to land reclamation. Oklahoma Law Review, 46, 292.Google Scholar
  31. Hardin, B., & Jehl, D. (2002, December 29). Ranchers bristle as gas wells loom on the range. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/29national/29METH.html
  32. Hearing on enhancing America’s energy security. (2003). Hearing before U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Resources, 108th Cong. Retrieved from http://bulk.resource.org/gpo.gov/hearings/108h/85771.pdf
  33. Keffer, W. R. (1994). Drilling for damages: Common law relief in oilfield pollution cases. Southern Methodist University Law Review, 47(523), 525.Google Scholar
  34. Kelman, S. (1987). Making public policy: A hopeful view of American politics. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  35. Kennedy, J. (2000, July/August). Technology limits environmental impact of drilling. Drilling Contractor, pp. 31–35. Retrieved from http://www.iadc.org/dcpi/dc-julaug00/u-doe.pdf
  36. Kingdon, J. (2003). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies (2nd ed.). Boston: Longman.Google Scholar
  37. Lands: Interior. Minerals Management: General. (2008). 43 C.F.R. pt. 3000.Google Scholar
  38. Lease of Oil and Gas Lands. (1988). 30 U.S.C. pt. 266. Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode30/usc_sec_30_00000226%2D%2D%2D%2D000-notes.htmlGoogle Scholar
  39. Levine, M. E., & Forrence, J. L. (1990). Regulatory capture, public interest, and the public agenda: Towards a synthesis. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 6, 167–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Maas, A. (1949). Muddy waters. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  41. McCool, D. C. (1987). Command of the waters. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  42. McCool, D. C. (1989). Subgovernments and the impact of policy fragmentation and accommodation. Policy Studies Review, 8(4), 264–287.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-1338.1988.tb01101.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McCool, D. C. (1990, Summer). Subgovernments as determinants of political viability. Political Science Quarterly, 105(2), 269–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McCool, D. C. (1995). Public policy theories, models, and concepts: An anthology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  45. McCool, D. C. (1998, June). The subsystem family of concepts: A critique and proposal. Political Science Quarterly, 51(2), 551–570.Google Scholar
  46. Miller, A. C., Hamburger, T., & Cart, J. (2004, August 25) White House Puts the West on Fast Track for Oil, Gas Drilling. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from www.latimes.com/news/yahoo/la-na-bog25aug25,1,500016.story
  47. Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 as amended (Title 30 of the United States Code § 181 et seq.). Retrieved from www.mrm.mms.gov/Laws_R_D/PubLaws/PDFDocs/MineralLeasingAct1920.pdf
  48. Mitchell, J.G. (2005, July). All fired up: A natural gas boom is transforming public lands in the Rockies, pitting Westerner against Westerner. National Geographic. Retrieved from http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0507/feature5/index.html
  49. National Environmental Protection Act of 1969 (Title 42 of the United States Code §4332). Retrieved from http://ceq.hss.doe.gov/nepa/regs/nepa/nepaeqia.htm
  50. New Mexico Surface Owner Protection Act. (2007). LB 0827, Laws of New Mexico.Google Scholar
  51. Offe, C. (1985). Contradictions of the welfare state: Disorganized capitalism. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Oil and Gas Royalty. (1988). 43 C.F.R. pt. 3103.3-1.Google Scholar
  53. Oil and Gas Leasing, 43 C.F.R pt. 3100-3109 (1988). Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/43/part-3100; Lease of oil and gas lands, 30 U.S.C. pt. 266 (1988). Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode30/usc_sec_30_00000226----000-notes.htmlGoogle Scholar
  54. Oversight hearing on the orderly development of coalbed methane resources from public lands. (2001). Hearing before U.S. House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources, 107th Cong. Retrieved from http://bulk.resource.org/gpo.gov/hearings/107h/75015.pdf
  55. Parks, Forests, and Public Property. (2008). 36 C.F.R. pt. 228, subpt. E.Google Scholar
  56. Ripley, R., & Franklin, G. (1984). Congress, the bureaucracy, and public policy. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  57. Royster, W. (2004, August 30). Stockgrowers dislike split estate draft bill. Casper Star Tribune. Retrieved from www.trib.com/news/state-and-regional/article_851a022e-3868-5635-8e5b-1e6b5dca9b67.html
  58. Sievers, L. (2004, July 7). To drill or not to drill. ABC News: Nighttline.Google Scholar
  59. Snell, M. B. (2003, July/August). A Cowboy’s Lament: Energy companies declare open season on New Mexico. Retrieved from http://www.sierraclub.org/sierra/200307/profile.asp
  60. Stock Raising Homestead Act of 1916a (Title 30 of the United States Code).Google Scholar
  61. Stock Raising Homestead Act of 1916b (Title 43 of the United States Code). Reservation of Coal and Mineral Rights at § 299. Retrieved from http://assembler.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode43/usc_sec_43_00000299%2D%2D%2D%2D000-.html
  62. Surface Mining and Control Act of 1976 (Title 30 United States Code §§ 1234-1328).Google Scholar
  63. The split-estate law between landowners and oil and gas developers. (2006, October 13). Alexander’s gas and oil connections news and trends: North America, 11(19). Retrieved from www.gasandoil.com/goc/news/ntn64101.htm
  64. United States Geological Service. (2000, November). Fact sheet: Water produced with coal-bed methane. Retrieved from http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs-0156-00/fs-0156-00.pdf
  65. United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2000, October). Profile of the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry. EPA Office of Compliance Sector Notebook Project. EPA/310-R-99-006. p.27. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/resources/publications/assistance/sectors/notebooks/oilgas.pdf
  66. Walker, L. M. (1983). Note: Oil and gas: Surface damages, operators, and the oil and gas attorney. Oklahoma Law Review, 36, 414.Google Scholar
  67. Western Governors’ Association. (2004). Western Governors’ Association Coal Bed Methane Best Management Practices Handbook. Retrieved from www.westgov.org/wga/initiatives/coalbed/index.htm
  68. Wilkinson, T. (2005, May 10). Energy boom is crowding ranchers: More ranchers rail against federal ‘split estate’ laws that control mineral rights beneath their land. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from www.csmonitor.com/2005/0510/p01s02-usju.html
  69. Wyoming Surface Owner Accommodation Act. (2005). LB 0070, Laws of Wyoming.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert E. Forbis Jr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA

Personalised recommendations