Advertisement

The Market Takes Off Into the 2000s

  • David Elliott
Chapter
Part of the Energy, Climate and the Environment book series (ECE)

Abstract

With climate change now a major policy issue, some quite radical carbon and renewables targets were set for the EU, with the UK, under a Labour administration, launching its own market-led programme, overseen by a new Department of Energy and Climate Change and backed by a new support mechanism, the Renewables Obligation (RO), as well as a Feed-In Tariff (FiT) for small projects. The subsequent Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government replaced the RO with an auction-based Contracts for Difference system for renewables, and also backed nuclear. However, with renewable capacity building up rapidly, the cost to consumers was also building up, while technology costs were falling. So, somewhat provocatively, radical cuts and caps were imposed on PV and onshore wind.

References

  1. Aurora. (2018). Tidal Power Technical Annex. London: Aurora Energy Research for the National Infrastructure Commission. https://www.nic.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/Tidal-power.pdf
  2. Barker, G. (2014, April 4). Quoted in Carrington, D. (2014). Solar Farms “Will Not Spread Unrestricted Across British Countryside”. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/apr/04/solar-farms-spread-unrestricted-british-countryside-greg-barker-wind
  3. BEIS. (2017a). ‘Energy and Climate Change Public Attitude Tracker’, Wave 23. London: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/656549/Wave_23_Summary_Report.pdf
  4. BEIS. (2017b). Contracts for Difference Second Allocation Round Results. London: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. http://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/643560/CFD_allocation_round_2_outcome_FINAL.pdf
  5. BEIS. (2017c). Solar Photovoltaics Deployment. London: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. http://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/solar-photovoltaics-deployment
  6. BEIS. (2017d). Review of Support for Anaerobic Digestion and Micro-Combined Heat and Power Under the Feed-in Tariff Scheme: Government Response. London: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. http://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/review-of-support-for-anaerobic-digestion-and-micro-combined-heat-and-power-under-the-feed-in-tariffs-scheme
  7. BEIS. (2017e). Industrial Strategy: Building a Britain Fit for the Future. London: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-unveils-industrial-strategy-to-boost-productivity-and-earning-power-of-people-across-the-uk
  8. BEIS. (2017f). Clean Growth Strategy. London: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/clean-growth-strategy
  9. BEIS. (2018a). Energy and Climate Change Public Attitude Tracker, Wave 25. London: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/702640/Wave_25_Summary_Report.pdf
  10. BEIS. (2018b). Updated Energy and Emissions Projections 2017. London: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/671187/Updated_energy_and_emissions_projections_2017.pdf
  11. BEIS. (2018c). The Future for Small-Scale Low-Carbon Generation. London: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/727138/Call_for_evidence-Future_SSLCG.pdf
  12. BEIS. (2018d, June 25). Proposed Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon. Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy Secretary Greg Clark’s Statement to Parliament. https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/proposed-swansea-bay-tidal-lagoon
  13. BEIS. (2018e). Energy Minister Claire Perry Hails Success Story of Offshore Wind in Newcastle Today. London: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/energy-minister-claire-perry-hails-success-story-of-offshore-wind-in-newcastle-today
  14. BEIS. (2018f). DECC 2050 Scenario Tool. London: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. https://www.gov.uk/guidance/2050-pathways-analysis
  15. BERR. (2008). Energy White Paper: Meeting the Energy Challenge. London: Department of Business, Enterprise & Regulatory Reform. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/228944/7296.pdf
  16. Blair, T. (2006, May 16). CBI Speech, as Quoted by the BBC, Blair Backs Nuclear Power Plans. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/4987196.stm
  17. Brack, D. (2017). Woody Biomass for Power and Heat: Impacts on the Global Climate. London: Chatham House. http://www.chathamhouse.org/publication/woody-biomass-power-and-heat-impacts-global-climate
  18. Buckley, A. (2018, July 19). How a Solar Farm in Southeast England Could Bring a New Dawn for Renewable Energy. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/how-a-solar-farm-in-southeast-england-could-bring-a-new-dawn-for-renewable-energy-99530
  19. Business Green. (2017, November 24). German Auction Sees Wind Energy Costs Drop Another 10 Per cent. Business Green. http://www.businessgreen.com/bg/news/3021838/german-auction-sees-wind-energy-costs-drop-another-10-percent
  20. Butler, G., Evans, M., Inderwildi, O., King, D., & McGlynn, G. (2012, March). Towards a Low Carbon Pathway for the UK. Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, University of Oxford. https://www.smithschool.ox.ac.uk/publications/reports/towards-a-low-carbon-pathway-for-the-uk-report-2012.pdf
  21. CAB. (2017). Generating Value? London: Citizens Advice Bureau. https://www.citizensadvice.org.uk/Global/CitizensAdvice/Energy/GeneratingValue.pdf
  22. Cameron, D. (2016, January 12). House of Commons Liaison Committee, Oral Evidence: Evidence from the Prime Minister, Q 83, HC 712. http://data.parliament.uk/WrittenEvidence/CommitteeEvidence.svc/EvidenceDocument/liaison/evidence-from-the-prime-minister-12-january-2016/oral/26761.htm
  23. CAT. (2018). A Series of Zero Carbon Britain Reports. Centre for Alternative Technology Reports. http://www.zerocarbonbritain.org/en/
  24. CCC. (2013). Next Steps on Electricity Market Reform – Securing the Benefits of Low-Carbon Investment. London: Committee on Climate Change. https://www.theccc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/1720_EMR_report_web.pdf
  25. CCC. (2018). Reducing UK Emissions – 2018 Progress Report to Parliament. London: Committee on Climate Change. http://www.theccc.org.uk/publication/reducing-uk-emissions-2018-progress-report-to-parliament/
  26. Community Energy England. (2018). Community Energy: State of the Sector 2018. Community Energy England/Community Energy Wales. https://communityenergyengland.org/files/document/169/1530262460_CEE_StateoftheSectorReportv.1.51.pdf
  27. DECC. (2010b). Severn Tidal Power: Feasibility Study Conclusions and Summary Report. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. http://www.decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/What%20we%20do/UK%20energy%20supply/Energy%20mix/Renewable%20energy/severn-tp/621-severn-tidal-power-feasibility-study-conclusions-a.pdf
  28. DECC. (2011a). UK Renewable Energy Roadmap. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/48128/2167-uk-renewable-energy-roadmap.pdf
  29. DECC. (2011b). Planning Our Electric Future: A White Paper for Secure, Affordable and Low-Carbon Energy. White Paper, Department of Energy and Climate Change, London. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/planning-our-electric-future-a-white-paper-for-secure-affordable-and-low-carbon-energy
  30. DECC. (2011c). Barker: Boom and Bust for Solar Must be Avoided. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/barker-boom-and-bust-for-solar-must-be-avoided
  31. DECC. (2012a). DECC Public Attitudes Tracker, Wave 1. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/48446/5707-decc-public-att-track-surv-wave1-summary.pdf
  32. DECC. (2012b). The Energy Bill: Electricity Market Reforms. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. http://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/news/pn12_151/pn12_151.aspx
  33. DECC. (2013a). UK Solar PV Strategy Part 1: Roadmap to a Brighter Future. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-solar-pv-strategy-part-1-roadmap-to-a-brighter-future
  34. DECC. (2013b). Energy and Emissions Update. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/239937/uep_2013.pdf
  35. DECC. (2014a). UK Solar PV Strategy Part 2. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/302049/uk_solar_pv_strategy_part_2.pdf
  36. DECC. (2014b). Electricity Market Reform: Allocation of Contracts for Difference. A Government response on Competitive Allocation. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/310272/competitive_allocation_government_response.pdf
  37. DECC. (2014c). Electricity Market Reform: Contracts for Difference. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. http://www.gov.uk/government/publications/electricity-market-reform-contracts-for-difference
  38. DECC. (2014d). Electricity Market Reform: Allocation of Contracts for Difference (p. 13). London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/271919/Competitive_allocation_consultation_formatted.pdf
  39. DECC. (2014e). Indicative CfD Budget Notice for the Autumn 2014 CfD Allocation Round. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/over-200-million-boost-for-renewables
  40. DECC. (2014f). £300 Million Budget to Launch UK Auctions for Renewables. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/300-million-budget-to-launch-uk-auctions-for-renewables
  41. DECC. (2015a). Contracts for Difference (CFD) Allocation Round One Outcome. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/contracts-for-difference-cfd-allocation-round-one-outcome
  42. DECC. (2015b). Review of the Feed-in Tariffs Scheme. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. http://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/486082/FITs_Review_Govt__response_Final.pdf
  43. DECC. (2015c). Consultation on a Review of the Feed-in Tariffs Scheme. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/469476/Consultation_on_a_Review_of_feed-in_tariff_scheme.pdf
  44. DECC. (2015d). EMR and FID Enabling for Renewables Government Response. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/electricity-market-reform-evaluation
  45. DEFRA. (2014). Subsidies for Solar Farms to be Cut to Help Safeguard Farmland. London: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/subsidies-for-solar-farms-to-be-cut-to-help-safeguardfarmlandGoogle Scholar
  46. DTI. (2003). Energy White Paper 2003: Our Energy Future – Creating a Low Carbon Economy. London: Department of Trade and Industry. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/www.berr.gov.uk/files/file10719.pdf
  47. DTI. (2004). Renewables Innovation Review. London: Department of Trade and Industry/Carbon Trust. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20060215070818/http://www.dti.gov.uk/renewables/renew_2.1.4.htm
  48. DTI. (2005). Renewables Explained. London: Department of Trade and Industry. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20060214073333/http://www.dti.gov.uk/renewables/renew_1.1.2.2.htm
  49. DTI. (2006a). The Energy Challenge. London: Department of Trade & Industry. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/272376/6887.pdf
  50. DTI. (2006b). Our Energy Challenge: Power from the People, Microgeneration Strategy. London: Department of Trade & Industry. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20090203191946/http://www.berr.gov.uk/whatwedo/energy/sources/sustainable/microgeneration/strategy/page27594.html
  51. DTI. (2007). Meeting the Energy Challenge: A White Paper on Energy. London: Department of Trade & Industry. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/243268/7124.pdf
  52. EAC. (2006). Keeping the Lights On: Nuclear, Renewables and Climate Change. Environmental Audit Committee, Sixth Report of Session 2005–06. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmselect/cmenvaud/584/584i.pdf
  53. Early, C. (2018, August 7). Can Marine Renewables Ever Be Mainstream? Utility Week. https://utilityweek.co.uk/can-marine-renewables-ever-mainstream/
  54. EC. (2009). Renewable Energy Directive, and Updates. Brussels: European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/renewable-energy/renewable-energy-directive
  55. ECIU. (2017). Blown Away. London: Energy and Climate Intelligence Unit. http://eciu.net/press-releases/2017/britain-in-1bn-block-on-cheapest-energy-technology
  56. Eddie. (2018, March 22). Britain on Course for £20bn Subsidy-Free Renewables ‘Revolution’. Eddie.net. http://www.edie.net/news/10/Britain-on-course-for%2D%2D20bn-subsidy-free-renewables%2D%2Drevolution-/
  57. Elliott, D. (1994). Public Reactions to Windfarms: The Dynamics of Opinion Formation. Energy and Environment, 5(4), 343–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Elliott, D. (2003). Energy, Society and Environment. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  59. Elliott, D. (2007). Sea Power – How We Can Tap Wave and Tidal Power. In D. Elliott (Ed.), Sustainable Energy. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Online at https://link.springer.com/book/10.1057%2F9780230378384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Elliott, D. (Ed.). (2010). Nuclear or Not? Basingstoke: Palgrave (First Edition 2007).Google Scholar
  61. Elliott, D. (2015). Green Energy Futures. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  62. Elliott, D. (2017). Nuclear Power: Past, Present and Future. Bristol: Institute of Physics Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Elliott, D. (2018, forthcoming). Carbon Capture and Renewables. In G. Wood, et al. (Eds.), The Long Goodbye to Fossil Fuels. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  64. Elliott, D., & Wood, G. (Eds.). (2018). Energy, Climate and Environment Book Series. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  65. Energy and Climate Committee. (2012). The Future of Marine Renewables in the UK. House of Commons Energy and Climate Change Select Committee, Eleventh Report, Session 2011–2012, London. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201012/cmselect/cmenergy/1624/162402.htm
  66. Ernst and Young. (2008). Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Indices. Ernst and Young Report, Quarter 1–2.Google Scholar
  67. ETI. (2017, January 16). ETI Sets Out Priorities for Marine Energy If It Is to Compete with Other Low Carbon Sources. Loughborough: Energy Technologies Institute. http://www.eti.co.uk/news/eti-sets-out-priorities-for-marine-energy-if-it-is-to-compete-with-other-low-carbon-sources
  68. Europa. (2014). Commission Concludes Modified UK Measures for Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Plant are Compatible with EU Rules. European Commission Press Release. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-14-1093_en.htm
  69. Evans, S. (2018, January 8). Analysis: UK Government Slashes Outlook for New Gas Power Plants. Carbon Brief. https://www.carbonbrief.org/analysis-uk-government-slashes-outlook-for-new-gas-power-plants
  70. EWG/LUT. (2017). Global 100% RE System: Europe – UK, Ireland. Berlin/Lappeenranta: Energy Watch Group/LUT. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320776623_Global_100_RE_System_Europe_-_UK_Ireland
  71. FES. (2018). Future Energy Scenarios, National Grid, 2018 Update. http://fes.nationalgrid.com/media/1363/fes-interactive-version-final.pdf
  72. Grotz, C., & Fouquet, D. (2005, April). Fixed Prices Work Better. New Energy, 2.Google Scholar
  73. Hannon, M., van Diemen, R., & Skea, J. (2017). Examining the Effectiveness of Support for UK Wave Energy Innovation Since 2000: Lost at Sea or a New Wave of Innovation? Imperial College London/Strathclyde University Report. https://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/62210/
  74. Harvey, F. (2012, August 1). UK Cuts Feed-in Tariff for Solar Panels. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/aug/01/solar-panel-feed-in-tariff-cut
  75. Hendry, C. (2016). The Role of Tidal Lagoons. Independent Report. https://hendryreview.files.wordpress.com/2016/08/hendry-review-final-report-english-version.pdf
  76. Hirtenstein, A. (2018, May 16). Green Investing in Britain Falls to Lowest in Decade. Renewable Energy World. http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/articles/2018/05/green-investing-in-britain-falls-to-lowest-in-decade.html
  77. HM Government. (2013). Initial Agreement Reached on New Nuclear Power Station at Hinkley. UK Government Press Release. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/initial-agreement-reached-on-new-nuclear-power-station-at-hinkley
  78. HM Government. (2017). Control for Low Carbon Levies. London: UK Government/Treasury Policy Statement. http://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/660986/Control_for_Low_Carbon_Levies_web.pdf
  79. Howard, R., & Drayson, K. (2015). Powering Up: The Future of Onshore Wind in the UK. London: Policy Exchange. https://policyexchange.org.uk/publication/powering-up-the-future-of-onshore-wind-in-the-uk/
  80. Macalister, T. (2015, July 22). Solar Power Subsidies Cut Might Save Just 50p on Average Electricity Bill. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/jul/22/solar-power-subsidies-to-be-cut-under-plans-to-reduce-green-energy-costs
  81. Merrill, J. (2014, October 19). Eric Pickles Accused of ‘Rejecting Wind Farms to Win Votes’. The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/green-living/eric-pickles-accused-of-rejecting-wind-farms-to-win-votes-9804278.html
  82. Mitchell, C., Bauknecht, D., & Connor, P. (2006). Effectiveness Through Risk Reduction: A Comparison of the Renewable Obligation in England and Wales and the Feed-in System in Germany. Energy Policy, 34(3), 297–305. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301-4215(04)00241-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Montag, H., Parker, G., & Clarkson, T. (2016). The Effects of Solar Farms on Local Biodiversity. Clarkson & Woods and Wychwood Biodiversity. http://www.clarksonwoods.co.uk/download/Solar_Farms_Biodiversity_Study.pdf
  84. Mott MacDonald. (2011, May). Costs of Low-Carbon Technologies. Report for the Committee on Climate Change. https://www.theccc.org.uk/archive/aws/Renewables%20Review/MML%20final%20report%20for%20CCC%209%20may%202011.pdf
  85. Murray, J. (2014, November 5). Defra Admits It Cannot Say How Much Farmland Solar Power Is Affecting. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/nov/05/defra-admits-it-cannot-say-how-much-farmland-solar-power-is-affecting
  86. NAO. (2005). Department of Trade and Industry: Renewable Energy. London: National Audit Office. https://www.nao.org.uk/report/department-of-trade-and-industry-renewable-energy/
  87. NAO. (2016). Nuclear Power in the UK. London: National Audit Office. http://www.nao.org.uk/report/nuclear-power-in-the-uk
  88. NATTA. (2007). Wave Power and Tidal Current Turbines: A Review of Progress. Compilation of Reports from Renew, Network for Alternative Technology and Technology Assessment, Milton Keynes.Google Scholar
  89. Newbery, D. (2011). Reforming Competitive Electricity Markets to Meet Environmental Targets. Electricity Policy Research Group, Cambridge University. https://www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/EPRG-1126_complete1.pdf
  90. NPS. (2011). National Policy Statements on Energy EN-1 (p. 22). London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/47854/1938-overarching-nps-for-energy-en1.pdf
  91. NRDC. (2016). Money to Burn? The U.K. Needs to Dump Biomass and Replace Is Coal Plants with Truly Clean Energy. US Natural Resources Defence Council. https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/uk-biomass-replace-coal-clean-energy-ib.pdf
  92. OBR. (2015). Economic and Fiscal Outlook – Nov. London: Office of Budgetary Responsibility http://obr.uk/efo/economic-and-fiscal-outlook-november-2015/
  93. Ofgem. (2005). Ofgem’s Response to the Preliminary Consultation on the 2005–6 Review of the Renewables Obligation. London: Office of Gas and Electricity Markets. https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/sites/default/files/docs/2007/02/16892-prelimcondoc230605.pdf
  94. Ofgem. (2018). Renewable Obligation Accredited Capacity. London: Office of Gas and Electricity Markets. https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/environmental-programmes/ro/contacts-publications-and-data/public-reports-and-data-ro#thumbchart-c8935703234747052-n92708
  95. PAC. (2014). Early Contracts for Renewable Electricity. London: Public Accounts Committee, House of Commons. https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/public-accounts-committee/news/report-early-contracts-for-renewable-electricity/
  96. PAC. (2017). Hinkley Point C. Public Accounts Committee, Third Report of Session 2017–19, House of Commons. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmpubacc/393/393.pdf
  97. Pfenninger, S., & Keirstead, J. (2015). Renewables, Nuclear, or Fossil Fuels? Scenarios for Great Britain’s Power System Considering Costs, Emissions and Energy Security. Applied Energy, 152, 83–93. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261915005656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. PIU. (2002). The Energy Review. London: Performance and Innovation Unit, Cabinet Office. http://www.gci.org.uk/Documents/TheEnergyReview.pdf
  99. Pugwash. (2013). High Renewable Scenario in ‘Pathways to 2050: Three Possible UK Energy Strategies’. London: British Pugwash Group. https://britishpugwash.org/pathways-to-2050-three-possible-uk-energy-strategies/
  100. RAB. (2008). Wave and Tidal Stream Review. London: Renewables Advisory Board, DECC.Google Scholar
  101. REA. (2017). REA Response to Chatham House Report – Woody Biomass for Power and Heat. London: Renewable Energy Association. http://www.r-e-a.net/news/rea-response-to-chatham-house-report-woody-biomass-for-power-and-heat
  102. Renew. (2000). Net Loss. Renew 125 May–June, Renew On-line 26. http://eeru.open.ac.uk/natta/renewonline/rol26/3.htm
  103. Renew. (2009). Microgeneration FiT/Lords Debate on the FiT. Renew 178 March–April, Renew On-line 78. http://eeru.open.ac.uk/renew_online.php
  104. Ross, D. (2002). Scuppering the Waves: How They Tried to Repel Clean Energy. Science and Public Policy, 29(1), 25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ross, K. (2015, September 11). Renewable Subsidy Cuts Dominate UK Energy Debate. Power Engineering International. http://www.powerengineeringint.com/articles/2015/11/renewable-subsidy-cuts-dominate-uk-energy-debate.html
  106. RTP. (2015). Distributing Power: A Transition to a Civic Energy Future. Report of the Realising Transition Pathways Research Consortium ‘Engine Room’. http://www.realisingtransitionpathways.org.uk/realisingtransitionpathways/news/distributing_power.html
  107. Rudd, A. (2014). Parliamentary Answer, House of Commons, Dec. 18th, Hansard, Vol 589. https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2014-12-18/debates/14121837000013/UKEnergySources(Subsidy)#contribution-14121837000024
  108. Rudd, A. (2015). Parliamentary Statement, House of Commons, June 22nd, Hansard, Col. 617. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201516/cmhansrd/cm150622/debtext/150622-0001.htm#1506227000002
  109. RUK. (2017, January 16). Renewable UK, Quoted in Vaughan, A., UK Wave Power Far Too Costly, Warns Energy Research Body. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/jan/16/uk-wave-power-far-too-costly-warns-energy-research-body
  110. Science and Technology Committee. (2001). Wave and Tidal Energy. House of Commons Select Committee on Science and Technology, Seventh Report, Session 2000–2001, London.Google Scholar
  111. Scottish Government. (2012, March 29). Scotland Beats 2011 Green Energy Target. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2012/03/geenenergytargets29032012
  112. Shankleman, J., & Murray, J. (2014, May 15). Are Solar Farms Really Too Costly for DECC’s Budget? Business Green. http://www.businessgreen.com/bg/analysis/2344769/are-solar-farms-really-too-costly-for-decc-s-budget
  113. Solar Century. (2014, May 13). Seb Berry from Solar Century Quoted in McGrath, M. (2014). Government to Slash Subsidies for Large Scale Solar Farms. BBC News. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-27393805
  114. STA. (2014, November–December). Solar Trade Association Press Release, Quoted in Renew 212, p. 3. Renew On-line 112. https://renewonlinearchive.files.wordpress.com/2015/02/rol112.pdf
  115. STA. (2015a, August). Solar Industry Reeling at Self-Defeating Feed-in Tariff Proposals. London: Solar Trade Association, Undated Press Release. http://www.solar-trade.org.UK/solar-industry-reeling-at-self-defeating-feed-in-tariff-proposals
  116. STA. (2015b). The Solar Independence Plan for Britain. London: Solar Trade Association. http://www.solar-trade.org.uk/solar-independence-plan-for-britain/
  117. Telegraph. (2012, January 30). Text of a Letter Sent to PM David Cameron by 100 MPs. Daily Telegraph. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/energy/windpower/9061554/Full-letter-from-MPs-to-David-Cameron-on-wind-power-subsidies.html
  118. Tickell, O. (2015, July 9). Osborne’s £3.9bn Stealth Attack on Renewables. The Ecologist. https://theecologist.org/2015/jul/09/osbornes-ps39bn-stealth-attack-renewables
  119. Toke, D. (2007a). Renewable Financial Support Systems and Cost-Effectiveness. Journal of Cleaner Production, 15, 280–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Toke, D. (2007b, August). In Making the UK Renewables Programme FITTER. World Future Council Report.Google Scholar
  121. Toke, D. (2014, July 25). Government Cuts Onshore Wind Deployment by 50 Per cent and Solar Farms to Zero. Green Energy Blog. http://realfeed-intariffs.blogspot.com/2014/07/government-cuts-onshore-wind-deployment.html
  122. Treasury. (2013). Investing in Britain’s Future. London: HM Treasury. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/investing-in-britains-future
  123. Vaughan, A. (2018, March 20). Subsidy-Free Renewable Energy Projects Set to Soar in UK, Analysts Say. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2018/mar/20/uk-subsidy-free-renewable-energy-projects-set-soar-aurora-energy-research-analysts
  124. Whitlock, R. (2016, June 2). UK Renewables Threatened Again: REM Talks to ADBA About the Threat to British Biogas. Renewable Energy Magazine. https://www.renewableenergymagazine.com/interviews/uk-renewables-threatened-again-rem-talks-to-20160602
  125. Wicks, M. (2008). Parliamentary Answer, House of Commons, July 17th. Link to Hansard Entry Not Currently Available.Google Scholar
  126. Wilson, B. (2001). Parliamentary Answer, Support for Renewables, Hansard 21st Nov., Col 300-01W. Holding Answer, Nov. 7th, Col. 306W. https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/written-answers/2001/nov/21/renewable-energy#S6CV0375P0_20011121_CWA_200
  127. Wood, G., & Baker, K. (Eds.). (2017). A Critical Review of Scottish Renewable and Low Carbon Energy Policy. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Elliott
    • 1
  1. 1.The Open UniversityMilton KeynesUK

Personalised recommendations