• Hee Sun Choi


This final chapter concludes with a description of the challenges in linking the concrete physicality of the built environment and the intangible social, economic, political and cultural contents that the book has highlighted. By better understanding these challenges, policy makers, planners, designers and users may better understand how to alleviate the marked inequality and lack of opportunities which force too many segments of society, such as this group of foreign domestic helpers (FDHs), to find space for life within the peripheries of the city.


Urban marginality Healthy city Walkability Sense of place Informal and formal public space Cultural landscape 


  1. Arendt, H. (1958). The Human Condition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bentley, I. (Ed.). (1985). Responsive Environments: A Manual for Designers. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Brenner, N. (2004). New State Spaces: Urban Governance and the Rescaling of Statehood. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Canter, D. (1977). The Psychology of Place. London: Architectural Press.Google Scholar
  5. Castells, M., & Borja, J. (1997). Local and Global: The Management of Cities in the Information Age. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  6. Choi, H. S. (2012). Public Spaces in the Advanced Hi-technology Infrastructure of the U-City: Lessons from Seoul. Accessed 4 June 2018.
  7. Habermas, J. (1962). The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  8. Habraken, N. J. (1992). In J. Teicher (Ed.), The Structure of the Ordinary: Form and Control in the Built Environment. Cambridge, MA/London: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  9. Harvey, D. (2000). Space of Hope. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  10. Rapoport, A. (1977). Human Aspects of Urban Form (Vol. 3). Oxford: Pergamon.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Sandercock, L. (2003). Cosmopolis II: Mongrel Cities of the 21st Century. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hee Sun Choi
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Hong KongHong KongHong Kong

Personalised recommendations