IASCC Susceptibility of 304L Stainless Steel Irradiated in a BWR and Subjected to Post Irradiation Annealing
Post-irradiation annealing (PIA) was conducted to investigate the cause of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). The effects of PIA on irradiation hardening, dislocation channel formation, and IASCC susceptibility were examined for a 304L stainless steel irradiated to 5.9 dpa in the Barsebäck-1 reactor (Sweden). The annealing treatments were performed at temperatures in the range 450–600 °C and times ranging from 1–20 h. Longer annealing times and higher temperatures, as represented by iron diffusion distance, resulted in a significant reduction in irradiation hardening. IASCC susceptibility was measured for the as-irradiated and two PIA conditions (500 °C: 1 h and 550 °C: 20 h) via interrupted CERT tests under simulated BWR-NWC conditions. The annealing treatments progressively reduced IASCC susceptibility (as measured by the final intergranular fracture fraction) and dislocation channel density.
KeywordsIASCC Irradiation Hardening Dislocation channels Post-irradiation annealing Neutron-irradiated Stainless steel
The authors would like to thank Alex Flick for assistance in operation of the CERT experiments at the Irradiated Materials Testing Laboratory and the University of Michigan. Gratitude is also extended to Maxim Gussev and the technical support staff at the Low Activity Materials Development and Analysis Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for assistance with specimen handling and preparation. Support for this project was provided by funding from the Nuclear Energy University Programs (project number: DE-AC07-05ID14517) and under appointment to the Rickover Fellowship Program in Nuclear Engineering sponsored by Naval Reactors Division of the U.S. Department of Energy.
- 1.P. Scott, A review of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking, J. Nucl. Mater. 211, 101–122 (1994). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022311594903603 (Accessed 31 July 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.K. Fukuya, M. Nakano, K. Fujii, T. Torimaru, Y. Kitsunai, Separation of Microstructural and Microchemical Effects in Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking using Post-irradiation Annealing. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 41, 1218–1227 (2004). doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/18811248.2004.9726351 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.T. Toyama, Y. Nozawa, W. Van Renterghem, Y. Matsukawa, M. Hatakeyama, Y. Nagai et al., Irradiation-induced precipitates in a neutron irradiated 304 stainless steel studied by three-dimensional atom probe. J. Nucl. Mater. 418, 62–68 (2011). doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2011.07.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Z. Jiao, Y. Chen, J. Hesterberg, E. Marquis, G. Was, Post-Irradiation Annealing in Mitigation of IASCC of Proton-Irradiated Stainless Steel, In: 16th Int. Conf. Environ. Degrad. (2013)Google Scholar
- 17.K. Stephenson, G. Was, Relationship Between Dislocation Channeling and IASCC in Neutron Irradiated Stainless Steel, In: 16th Int. Conf. Environ. Degrad. (2013)Google Scholar
- 19.R. Katsura, Y. Ishiyama, N. Yokota, T. Kato, K. Nakata, K. Fukuya, et al., Post-Irradiation Annealing Effect of Austenitic Stainless Steels on IASCC, Corrosion. (1998). http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=NACE-98132 (Accessed 31 July 2012)
- 20.K. Asano, R. Katsura, M. Kodama, S. Nishimura, K. Fukuya, K. Nakata, Post-irradiation annealing effects on hardness and intergranular corrosion in type 304 stainless steel, in: 7th Int. Conf. Environ. Degrad. Mater. Nucl. Power Syst. 1033–1042 (1995)Google Scholar
- 22.N. Soneda, K. Nishida, P. Chou, Characterization of solute atom distribution in grain interior of neutron-irradiated 304L and 304 stainless steels (2011)Google Scholar