Advertisement

SCC Mitigation in Boiling Water Reactors: Platinum Deposition and Durability on Structural Materials

  • Pascal V. GrundlerEmail author
  • Stefan Ritter
  • Lyubomira Veleva
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)

Abstract

Noble metal injection is widely used to mitigate stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of reactor components. Despite its wide use, there are still open questions regarding the parameters affecting the application process and possible improvements to it. Laboratory experiments in a high-temperature water loop at PSI were complemented by exposure of specimens in the mitigation monitoring system (MMS) at KKL. The influence of parameters such as flow conditions, structural material composition, surface roughness and geometry on the deposition behavior of the platinum (Pt) nanoparticles was investigated. Furthermore, the long-term stability of the coverage of surfaces by Pt particles was analyzed. The composition of the underlying alloy was found to have an effect on the deposition behavior, whereas surface roughness has no measurable impact. Pt showed a limited durability on steel surfaces and, after the end of the application, the remobilized Pt seems to re-deposit only minimally on nearby surfaces.

Keywords

SCC mitigation BWR Noble metal Platinum Nanoparticles NobleChemTM 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The financial support by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) is gratefully acknowledged. We are also indebted to the Swiss nuclear power plants KKL and KKM for their precious in-kind contributions to the project. Beat Baumgartner and Pia Reichel (both PSI) are thanked for their experimental contribution.

References

  1. 1.
    R. Kilian, A. Roth, Corrosion behaviour of reactor coolant system materials in nuclear power plants. Mater. Corros. 53, 727–739 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    C.J. Wood, Water chemistry control in LWRs, in Comprehensive Nuclear Materials ed. by R.J.M. Konings (Elsevier, Oxford, 2012), pp. 17–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.L. Cowan, C.C. Lin, W.J. Marble, C.P. Ruiz, Hydrogen water chemistry in BWRs, 5th International Symposium on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems—Water Reactors (pp. 50–58) (1991)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Hettiarachchi, R.L. Cowan, T.P. Diaz, R.J. Law, S.E. Garcia, Noble Metal Chemical Addition… from Development to Commercial Application, 7th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. Oliver, B. Helmersson, G. Ledergerber, W. Kaufmann, G. Wikmark, B. Cheng, A. Kucuk, Review of Water Chemistry and Corrosion Products in a NWC Plant Transitioned to Hydrogen Injection and OLNC, Nuclear Plant Chemistry (NPC) Conference (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Hettiarachchi, C. Weber, Water Chemistry Improvements in an Operating Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Associated Benefits, Nuclear Plant Chemistry (NPC) Conference Paper No. 2.04 (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y.-J. Kim, P.L. Andresen, S. Hettiarachchi, T.P. Diaz, Hydrothermal formation and distribution of noble metal particles on type 304 SS in high temperature water, CORROSION 2007, Paper 07604 (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P.V. Grundler, S. Ritter, Noble Metal Chemical Addition for Mitigation of Stress Corrosion Cracking: Theoretical Insights and Applications. PowerPlant Chem. 16(2), 76–93 (2014)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P.V. Grundler, A. Ramar, V. Karastoyanov, S. Abolhassani-Dadras, I. Guenther-Leopold, N. Kivel, S. Ritter, Effect of injection rate on Platinum deposition behaviour on stainless steel under simulated BWR conditions, Nuclear Plant Chemistry (NPC) Conference, Paper 117 Poster 1–46 (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Ramar, P.V. Grundler, V. Karastoyanov, I. Günther-Leopold, S. Abolhassani-Dadras, N. Kivel, S. Ritter, Effect of Pt injection rate on corrosion potential and Pt distribution on stainless steel under simulated boiling water reactor conditions. Corros. Eng., Sci. Technol. 47(7), 489–497 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Ramar, P.V. Grundler, V. Karastoyanov, I. Günther-Leopold, S. Abolhassani-Dadras, N. Kivel, S. Ritter, Platinum deposition behaviour on stainless steel under varying water chemistry in simulated BWR conditions, Nuclear Plant Chemistry (NPC) Conference, Paper 116 Poster 1–45 (2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P.V. Grundler, A. Ramar, L. Veleva, S. Ritter, Effect of flow conditions on the deposition of platinum nanoparticles on stainless steel surfaces. Corrosion 71(1), 101–113 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P.V. Grundler, L. Veleva, H. Gu, S. Allner, B. Niceno, S. Ritter, Noble metal applications for SCC mitigation in BWRs: Platinum nanoparticle penetration into crevices and cracks under controlled flow conditions, 17th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Systems—Water Reactors 16 (2015)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. F. Gu, B. Niceno, P. V. Grundler, M. Sharabi, L. Veleva, S. Ritter, Computational study of platinum nanoparticle deposition on the surfaces of crevices, Nucl. Eng. Des. 304, 84–99 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. Günther, B. Hattendorf, Solid sample analysis using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Trends Anal. Chem. 24(3), 255–265 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    G.A. Parks, The isoelectric points of solid oxides, solid hydroxides, and aqueous hydroxo complex systems. Chem. Rev. 65(2), 177–198 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Kosmulski, Surface charging and points of zero charge (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    N. Kallay, Z. Torbic, M. Golic, E. Matijevic, Determination of the isoelectric points of several metals by an adhesion method. J. Phys. Chem. 95(18), 7028–7032 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Marzun, C. Streich, S. Jendrzej, S. Barcikowski, P. Wagener, Adsorption of colloidal platinum nanoparticles to supports: charge transfer and effects of electrostatic and steric interactions. Langmuir 30(40), 11928–11936 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D.J. Wesolowski, M.L. Machesky, D.A. Palmer, L.M. Anovitz, Magnetite surface charge studies to 290°C from in situ pH titrations. Chem. Geol. 167(1–2), 193–229 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M.A.A. Schoonen, Calculation of the point of zero charge of metal oxides between 0 and 350°C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58(13), 2845–2851 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Ritter, P.V. Grundler, L. Veleva, G. Ledergerber, Platinum deposition behaviour on stainless steel surfaces in a boiling water reactor plant, EUROCORR 2015, 870 (2015)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Kosmulski, Compilation of PZC and IEP of sparingly soluble metal oxides and hydroxides from literature. Adv. Coll. Interface. Sci. 152(1–2), 14–25 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Barale, G. Lefèvre, F. Carrette, H. Catalette, M. Fédoroff, G. Cote, Effect of the adsorption of lithium and borate species on the zeta potential of particles of cobalt ferrite, nickel ferrite, and magnetite. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 328(1), 34–40 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Y. Wang, R.J. Pugh, E. Forssberg, The influence of interparticle surface forces on the coagulation of weakly magnetic mineral ultrafines in a magnetic field. Colloids Surf., A 90(2–3), 117–133 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pascal V. Grundler
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stefan Ritter
    • 1
  • Lyubomira Veleva
    • 1
  1. 1.Nuclear Energy and Safety Research DivisionPaul Scherrer Institut (PSI)Villigen PSISwitzerland

Personalised recommendations