The Role of Galectin-3 in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Preliminary Study

  • Hirofumi Nishikawa
  • Fumi Nakano
  • Lei Liu
  • Yoshinari Nakatsuka
  • Takeshi Okada
  • Masato Shiba
  • Hidenori Suzuki
Part of the Acta Neurochirurgica Supplement book series (NEUROCHIRURGICA, volume 127)


Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), combined morbidity and mortality rate in SAH patients accounted for greater than 50%. Many prognostic factors have been reported including delayed cerebral ischemia, cerebral vasospasm-induced infarction, and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus as potentially preventable or treatable causes. Recent experimental studies emphasize that early brain injury, a concept to explain acute pathophysiological events that occur in brain before onset of cerebral vasospasm within the first 72 h of SAH, may be more important than cerebral vasospasm, a classically important determinant of poor outcome, in post-SAH outcome. Galectin-3 is known for one of matricellular proteins and a mediator of inflammation in the central nervous system. Galectin-3 was also reported to contribute to poor outcomes in SAH patients, but the role of galectin-3 after SAH has not been determined. We produced experimental SAH mice, of which the top of the internal carotid artery was perforated by 4-0 monofilament, and evaluated effects of a galectin-3 inhibitor. We assessed neurological scores and brain water content at 24 h. The administration of a galectin-3 inhibitor significantly ameliorated brain edema and neuronal score in experimental SAH mice.


Galectin-3 Subarachnoid hemorrhage Early brain injury 



We thank Ms. Chiduru Yamamoto, Department of Neurosurgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, for providing technical assistance.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hirofumi Nishikawa
    • 1
  • Fumi Nakano
    • 1
  • Lei Liu
    • 1
  • Yoshinari Nakatsuka
    • 1
  • Takeshi Okada
    • 1
  • Masato Shiba
    • 1
  • Hidenori Suzuki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryMie University Graduate School of MedicineTsuJapan

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