Use of Modern Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Tools to Improve the Quality Value of Oilseed Brassicas
Technological advancement has changed the future of plants, if we are talking about the use and applications of molecular marker systems. Different types of methods and use of molecular markers have been developed, which have geared advancements in sequencing technologies for crop improvement. These methods are now being applied to a range of crops and have good potential particularly for oilseed crops in terms of both overall food and non-food yield and the nutritional and technical quality of the oils. In this context, the targets include increasing overall oil yield and its quality, which covers a range of parameters. This chapter introduces some recent techniques in molecular markers and their recent applications in plant breeding, with special reference to oilseed brassicas. The progress made in molecular plant breeding, genomic selection and genome editing—such as marker-assisted selection, next-generation sequencing and transgenesis—has contributed to a more comprehensive understanding of molecular breeding techniques and provided deeper insights into the diversity of techniques available and, most importantly, their efficient utilization in oleiferous crops. Genotyping by sequencing and association mapping based on next-generation sequencing technologies have facilitated the identification of novel genetic markers. Use of informational RNA technology and Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING) techniques have opened the gateway for deciphering complex and unstructured populations. Remarkable progress in producing such oils in commercial crops by utilizing novel techniques has been made in recent years, with several varieties being released or at advanced stages of development.
KeywordsOilseed brassica Molecular plant breeding Next-generation sequencing Association mapping iRNA technology TILLING
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