Advertisement

Resilience and Governance

  • Igor Linkov
  • Benjamin D. Trump
Chapter
Part of the Risk, Systems and Decisions book series (RSD)

Abstract

After understanding the definitions and fundamentals of resilience, a natural extension includes how resilience is applied within the theory and practice of governance. As with any philosophy or analytical practice, resilience does not exist in a vacuum, and instead is applied alongside complementary practices of industry requirements and best practices of analyzing and managing risk. In this chapter, we unpack the critical questions of (a) what does resilience governance entail and (b) how has resilience been discussed and onboarded in various governing paradigms and practices in the United States and internationally? While current scholarly discussion in this area is limited, we can deduce governing procedures and priorities from various government agency policy documents and statements, as well as similar guiding principles laid out by industry, to indicate where resilience governance might be headed in the near-term future.

References

  1. Ahern, J. (2011). From fail-safe to safe-to-fail: Sustainability and resilience in the new urban world. University of Massachusetts-Amherst. Retrieved from http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1008&context=larp_grad_research.
  2. Alvarez-Guerra, M., Canis, L., Voulvoulis, N., Viguri, J. R., & Linkov, I. (2010). Prioritization of sediment management alternatives using stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis. Science of the Total Environment, 408(20), 4354–4367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayyub, B. M. (2014). Systems resilience for multihazard environments: Definition, metrics, and valuation for decision making. Risk Analysis, 34(2), 340–355.Google Scholar
  4. Berkes, F. (2007). Understanding uncertainty and reducing vulnerability: Lessons from resilience thinking. Natural Hazards, 41(2), 283–295.Google Scholar
  5. Berkes, F., Folke, C., & Colding, J. (Eds.). (2000). Linking social and ecological systems: Management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bhamra, R., Dani, S., & Burnard, K. (2011). Resilience: The concept, a literature review and future directions. International Journal of Production Research, 49(18), 5375–5393.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, K. (2012). 3 Policy discourses of resilience. In M. Pelling, D. Manuel-Navarrete, & M. RedClift (Eds.), Climate change and the crisis of capitalism: A chance to reclaim, self, society and nature (p. 37). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Burnard, K., & Bhamra, R. (2011). Organisational resilience: Development of a conceptual framework for organisational responses. International Journal of Production Research, 49(18), 5581–5599.Google Scholar
  9. Burton, C. G. (2015). A validation of metrics for community resilience to natural hazards and disasters using the recovery from Hurricane Katrina as a case study. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 105(1), 67–86.Google Scholar
  10. Cutter, S. L., Boruff, B. J., & Shirley, W. L. (2003). Social vulnerability to environmental hazards*. Social Science Quarterly, 84(2), 242–261.Google Scholar
  11. Cutter, S. L., Barnes, L., Berry, M., Burton, C., Evans, E., Tate, E., & Webb, J. (2008). A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Global Environmental Change, 18(4), 598–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Duit, A. (2015). Resilience thinking: Lessons for public administration. Public Administration, 94(2), 364–380.Google Scholar
  13. Fazey, I. R. A. (2010). Resilience and higher order thinking. Ecology and Society, 15(3), 9.Google Scholar
  14. Folke, C., Carpenter, S. R., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., Chapin, T., & Rockström, J. (2010). Resilience thinking: Integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and Society, 15(4), 20.Google Scholar
  15. Fox-Lent, C., Bates, M. E., & Linkov, I. (2015). A matrix approach to community resilience assessment: An illustrative case at Rockaway Peninsula. Environment Systems and Decisions, 35(2), 209–218.Google Scholar
  16. Fukuyama, F. (2013). What is governance? Governance, 26(3), 347–368.Google Scholar
  17. Ganin, A. A., Kitsak, M., Marchese, D., Keisler, J. M., Seager, T., & Linkov, I. (2017). Resilience and efficiency in transportation networks. Science Advances, 3(12), e1701079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gibbs, L., & Holloway, C. (2013). Hurricane sandy after action: Report and recommendations to Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg (p. 36). New York: The City of New York.Google Scholar
  19. Hamnett, S. (2014). Resilience & the city: Change, (dis)order and disaster. Urban Policy and Research, 32(2), 244–246.Google Scholar
  20. Houston, J. B. (2015). Bouncing forward assessing advances in community resilience assessment, intervention, and theory to guide future work. American Behavioral Scientist, 59(2), 175–180.Google Scholar
  21. Jasanoff, S. (2011). Designs on nature: Science and democracy in Europe and the United States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Johnson, B. L. (1999). The role of adaptive management as an operational approach for resource management agencies. Conservation Ecology, 3(2), 8.Google Scholar
  23. Kasperson, R. E. (2012). Risk and resilience: Toward an Integrative Framework of Analysis. In Integrative Risk Management: Fostering infrastructure resilience (pp. 59–71). Swiss Re.Google Scholar
  24. Kasperson, R. E., & Berberian, M. (2011a). Integrating science and policy: Vulnerability and resilience in global environmental change. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Kasperson, R. E., & Berberian, M. (Eds.). (2011b). Integrating science and policy: Vulnerability and resilience inglobal environmental change (p. 457). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  26. Kersbergen, K. V., & Waarden, F. V. (2004). ‘Governance’ as a bridge between disciplines: Cross disciplinary inspiration regarding shifts in governance and problems of governability, accountability and legitimacy. European Journal of Political Research, 43(2), 143–171.Google Scholar
  27. Koslowski, T. G., & Longstaff, P. H. (2015). Resilience undefined: A framework for interdisciplinary communication and application to real-world problems. In A. J. Masys (Ed.), Disaster management: Enabling resilience (pp. 3–20). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  28. Larkin, S., Fox-Lent, C., Eisenberg, D. A., Trump, B. D., Wallace, S., Chadderton, C., & Linkov, I. (2015). Benchmarking agency and organizational practices in resilience decision making. Environment Systems and Decisions, 35(2), 185–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Leach, M. (2008). Re-framing resilience: A symposium report. Brighton: STEPS Centre.Google Scholar
  30. Leiserowitz, A. A. (2005). American risk perceptions: Is climate change dangerous? Risk Analysis, 25(6), 1433–1442.Google Scholar
  31. Lempert, R. J. (2003). Shaping the next one hundred years: New methods for quantitative, long-term policy analysis. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.Google Scholar
  32. Levi-Faur, D. (2011). Regulation and regulatory governance. In D. Levi-Faur (Ed.), Handbook on the politics of regulation (Vol. 1, pp. 1–25). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  33. Levy, J. K., & Gopalakrishnan, C. (2010). Promoting ecological sustainability and community resilience in the US Gulf Coast after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, 2(3), 297–315.Google Scholar
  34. Linkov, I., von Stackelberg, K. E., Burmistrov, D., & Bridges, T. S. (2001). Uncertainty and variability in risk from trophic transfer of contaminants in dredged sediments. Science of the Total Environment, 274(1–3), 255–269.Google Scholar
  35. Linkov, I., Satterstrom, F. K., Kiker, G., Batchelor, C., Bridges, T., & Ferguson, E. (2006). From comparative risk assessment to multi-criteria decision analysis and adaptive management: Recent developments and applications. Environment International, 32(8), 1072–1093.Google Scholar
  36. Linkov, I., Rosoff, H., Valverde, L. J., Bates, M. E., Trump, B., Friedman, D., et al. (2012a). Civilian response corps force review: The application of multicriteria decision analysis to prioritize skills required for future diplomatic missions. Journal of Multicriteria Decision Analysis, 19(3–4), 155–168.Google Scholar
  37. Linkov, I., Trump, B. D., Pabon, N., Collier, Z. A., Keisler, J. M., & Scriven, J. (2012b). A decision analytic approach for Department of Defense acquisition risk management. Military Operations Research, 17(2), 57–70.Google Scholar
  38. Linkov, I., Eisenberg, D. A., Bates, M. E., Chang, D., Convertino, M., Allen, J. H., Flynn, S. E., & Seager, T. P. (2013a). Measurable resilience for actionable policy. Environmental Science & Technology, 47(18), 10108–10110.Google Scholar
  39. Linkov, I., Eisenberg, D. A., Plourde, K., Seager, T. P., Allen, J., & Kott, A. (2013b). Resilience metrics for cyber systems. Environment Systems and Decisions, 33(4), 471–476.Google Scholar
  40. Linkov, I., Anklam, E., Collier, Z. A., DiMase, D., & Renn, O. (2014a). Risk-based standards: Integrating top–down and bottom–up approaches. Environment Systems and Decisions, 34(1), 134–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Linkov, I., Bridges, T., Creutzig, F., Decker, J., Fox-Lent, C., Kröger, W., & Lambert, J. H. (2014b). Changing the resilience paradigm. Nature Climate Change, 4(6), 407–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Linkov, I., Fox-Lent, C., Keisler, J., Sala, S. D., & Sieweke, J. (2014c). Risk and resilience lessons from Venice. Environment Systems and Decisions, 34(3), 378–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Linkov, I., Trump, B. D., Ditmer, R., & Hazle, M. (2014d). Munitions and explosives of concern: International governance and applications for the United States. Environmental Sciences Europe, 26(1), 30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Linkov, I., Trump, B., Jin, D., Mazurczak, M., & Schreurs, M. (2014e). A decision-analytic approach to predict state regulation of hydraulic fracturing. Environmental Sciences Europe, 26(1), 20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Linkov, I., Larkin, S., & Lambert, J. H. (2015). Concepts and approaches to resilience in a variety of governance and regulatory domains. Environment Systems and Decisions, 35(2), 183–184.Google Scholar
  46. Linkov, I., Trump, B. D., & Fox-Lent, K. (2016). Resilience: Approaches to risk analysis and governance. IRGC, Resource Guide on Resilience, EPFL International Risk Governance Center, Lausanne, v29-07-2016. Retrieved October 10, 2016, from https://www.irgc.org/riskgovernance/resilience/.
  47. Linkov, I., Fox-Lent, C., Read, L., Allen, C. R., Arnott, J. C., Bellini, E., et al. (2018). Tiered approach to resilience assessment. Risk Analysis, 38(9), 1772–1780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Linkov, I., Trump, B. D., & Keisler, J. (2018a). Risk and resilience must be independently managed. Nature, 555(7694), 30–30.Google Scholar
  49. Linkov, I., Trump, B. D., Anklam, E., Berube, D., Boisseasu, P., Cummings, C., et al. (2018b). Comparative, collaborative, and integrative risk governance for emerging technologies. Environment Systems and Decisions, 38(2), 170–176.Google Scholar
  50. Linkov, I., Trump, B. D., Poinsatte-Jones, K., & Florin, M. V. (2018c). Governance strategies for a sustainable digital world. Sustainability, 10(2), 440.Google Scholar
  51. Manyena, S. B. (2006). The concept of resilience revisited. Disasters, 30(4), 434–450.Google Scholar
  52. Massaro, E., Ganin, A., Perra, N., Linkov, I., & Vespignani, A. (2018). Resilience management during large-scale epidemic outbreaks. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Messick, D. M., & Brewer, M. B. (1983). Solving social dilemmas: A review. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 4(1), 11–44.Google Scholar
  54. Miller, F., Osbahr, H., Boyd, E., Thomalla, F., Bharwani, S., Ziervogel, G., Walker, B., Birkmann, J., van der Leeuw, S., Rockström, J., Hinkel, J., Downing, T., Folke, C., & Nelson, D. (2010). Resilience and vulnerability: Complementary or competing concepts? Ecology and Society, 15(3), 11 (online).Google Scholar
  55. Murphy, B. L., Anderson, G. S., Bowles, R., & Cox, R. S. (2013). Planning for disaster resilience in rural, remote, and coastal communities: Moving from thought to action. Journal of Emergency Management (Weston, Mass.), 12(2), 105–120.Google Scholar
  56. National Academy of Sciences (NAS), & Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. (2012). Disaster resilience: A national imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  57. Nienaber, M. (2017). G20 adopt list of principles to strengthen economic resilience. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-g20-germany-resilience/g20-adopt-list-of-principles-to-strengthen-economic-resilience-idUSKBN16P0QY.
  58. OECD. (2014). Recommendation of the Council on the Governance of Critical Risks. Available online at http://www.oecd.org/gov/risk/recommendation-on-governance-of-critical-risks.htm.
  59. OECD. (2016j). OECD G20 Policy Paper on Economic Resilience and Structural Policies. Available online at http://www.g20.utoronto.ca/2017/2017-Germany-G20-policy-paper.pdf.
  60. OECD. (2016k). Strengthening Economic Resilience: Insights from the Post-1970 Record of Severe Recessions and Financial Crises. Available online at https://www.oecd.org/eco/growth/Strengthening-economic-resilience-insights-from-the-post-1970-record-of-severe-recessions-and-financial-crises-policy-paper-december-2016.pdf.
  61. Palma-Oliveira, J. M., & Trump, B. (2016). Modern resilience: Moving without movement. International Risk Governance Council Handbook on Resilience.Google Scholar
  62. Palma-Oliveira, J. M., Trump, B. D., Wood, M. D., & Linkov, I. (2018). Community driven hypothesis testing: A solution for the tragedy of the anticommons. Risk Analysis, 38(3), 620–634.Google Scholar
  63. Park, J., Seager, T. P., Rao, P. S. C., Convertino, M., & Linkov, I. (2013). Integrating risk and resilience approaches to catastrophe management in engineering systems. Risk Analysis, 33(3), 356–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pelling, M., Manuel-Navarrete, D., & Redclift, M. (Eds.). (2012). Climate change and the crisis of capitalism: A chance to reclaim, self, society and nature. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Pendall, R., Foster, K. A., & Cowell, M. (2009). Resilience and regions: Building understanding of the metaphor. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3(1), 71–84.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cjres/rsp028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rycroft, T., Trump, B., Poinsatte-Jones, K., & Linkov, I. (2018). Nanotoxicology and nanomedicine: Making development decisions in an evolving governance environment. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 20(2), 52.Google Scholar
  67. Sempier, T. T., Swann, D. L., Emmer, R., Sempier, S. H., & Schneider, M. (2010). Coastal community resilience index: A community self assesment (MASGP-08-014).Google Scholar
  68. Sinclair, K., Curtis, A., Mendham, E., & Mitchell, M. (2014). Can resilience thinking provide useful insights for those examining efforts to transform contemporary agriculture? Agriculture and Human Values, 31(3), 371–384.Google Scholar
  69. Smith, D., & Fischbacher, M. (2009). The changing nature of risk and risk management: The challenge of borders, uncertainty and resilience. Risk Management, 11(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  70. Standish, R. J., Hobbs, R. J., Mayfield, M. M., Bestelmeyer, B. T., Suding, K. N., Battaglia, L. L., & Eviner, V. (2014). Resilience in ecology: Abstraction, distraction, or where the action is? Biological Conservation, 177, 43–51.Google Scholar
  71. Stankey, G. H., Clark, R. N., & Bormann, B. T. (2005). Adaptive management of natural resources: Theory, concepts, and management institutions (Vol. 654). Portland, OR: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.Google Scholar
  72. Sylves, R. (2014). Disaster policy and politics: Emergency management and homeland security. Washington, DC: CQ Press.Google Scholar
  73. Thompson, J. A., Sempier, T., & Swann, L. (2012). Increasing risk awareness: The coastal community resilience index. Journal of Extension, 50(4), 4TOT5.Google Scholar
  74. Trump, B. D. (2017). Synthetic biology regulation and governance: Lessons from TAPIC for the United States, European Union, and Singapore. Health Policy, 121(11), 1139–1146.Google Scholar
  75. Trump, B. D., Poinsatte-Jones, K., Elran, M., Allen, C., Srdjevic, B., Merad, M., et al. (2017). Social resilience and critical infrastructure systems. In I. Linkov & J. M. Palma-Oliveira (Eds.), Resilience and risk (pp. 289–299). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  76. Trump, B. D., Cegan, J. C., Wells, E., Keisler, J., & Linkov, I. (2018a). A critical juncture for synthetic biology: Lessons from nanotechnology could inform public discourse and further development of synthetic biology. EMBO Reports, 19(7), e46153.Google Scholar
  77. Trump, B. D., Hristozov, D., Malloy, T., & Linkov, I. (2018b). Risk associated with engineered nanomaterials: Different tools for different ways to govern. Nano Today, 21, 9–13.Google Scholar
  78. United Kingdom Department for International Development (UK DFID). (2013). Minimum standards for embedding disaster resilience in DFID country offices, accessed 17 May 2017 at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/191840/Minimum_standards_for_embedding_Disaster_Resilience.pdf.
  79. Walsh-Dilley, M., Wolford, W., & McCarthy, J. (2013). Rights for resilience: Bringing power, rights and agency into the resilience framework.Google Scholar
  80. Welsh, M. (2014). Resilience and responsibility: Governing uncertainty in a complex world. The Geographical Journal, 180(1), 15–26.Google Scholar
  81. Wood, M., Wells, E., Rice, G., & Linkov, I. (2018). Quantifying and mapping resilience within large organizations. Omega.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Igor Linkov
    • 1
  • Benjamin D. Trump
    • 1
  1. 1.US Army Corps of EngineersConcordUSA

Personalised recommendations