Conclusion: Resilience for a Complex World
The world is experiencing a gradual increase in systemic threats that threaten critical infrastructure, social order, and environmental sustainability. Our capability to address those threats is diminishing, and significant residual risk remains. Risk assessment and management have been used to harden components of the systems affected by specific threats, yet such approaches are often prohibitively expensive to implement, and do not address cascading effects of system failure. Accepting the possibility of system failure and focusing on recovery has been proposed under the umbrella of resilience assessment. Even though resilience has promise in many fields, including psychology, ecology, and engineering, its operationalization has been misapplied in a manner that is easily rectified.