Sustained by the Sacred: Religious and Spiritual Factors for Resilience in Adulthood and Aging

  • Serena WongEmail author
  • Kenneth I. Pargament
  • Carol Ann Faigin


There are many sources of strength when stressful events occur throughout life. Psychologists have identified factors such as social support, positive emotions, and self-compassion that contribute to resilience. Religion and spirituality offer an additional dimension in coping with adversity: the sacred . We argue that an integrated connection with the sacred is essential for accessing unique reservoirs of strength in difficult times. Religious resources serve as lifelines that route individuals towards wellbeing. On the other hand, unrelenting spiritual struggles can compound stress or exacerbate difficulties. Thus it is critical to assess the nature of one’s relationship with the sacred. In doing so, targeted interventions to build spiritual resilience and decrease spiritual risk factors can be applied at different points throughout adulthood and aging.


Resilience Religion Spirituality Sacred Religious resources 


  1. Abu-Raiya, H., & Pargament, K. I. (2015). Religious coping among diverse religions: Commonalities and divergences. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 7(1), 24–33. Scholar
  2. Abu-Raiya, H., Pargament, K. I., Krause, N., & Ironson, G. (2015). Robust links between religious/spiritual struggles, psychological distress, and well-being in a national sample of American adults. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 85(6), 565–575. Scholar
  3. Acevedo, G. A., Ellison, C. G., & Xu, X. (2014). Is it really religion? Comparing the main and stress-buffering effects of religious and secular civic engagement on psychological distress. Society and Mental Health, 4(2), 111–128. Scholar
  4. Agli, O., Bailly, N., & Ferrand, C. (2015; 2014). Spirituality and religion in older adults with dementia: A systematic review. International Psychogeriatrics, 27(5), 715–725. Scholar
  5. Alcorn, S., Balboni, M., Prigerson, H., Reynolds, A., Phelps, A., Wright, A., et al. (2010). “If god wanted me yesterday, I wouldn’t be here today”: Religious and spiritual themes in patients’ experiences of advanced cancer. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 13(5), 581–588. Scholar
  6. Alvarado, C. (2016). Sacred moments in nursing care from the perspective of frontline psychiatric health providers: Prevalence and consequences. Doctoral dissertation, University of Alaska Anchorage.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, N., Heywood-Everett, S., Siddiqi, N., Wright, J., Meredith, J., & McMillan, D. (2015). Faith-adapted psychological therapies for depression and anxiety: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 176, 183–196. Scholar
  8. Ano, G. G., Pargament, K. I., Wong, S., & Pomerleau, J. (2017). From vice to virtue: Evaluating a manualized intervention for moral spiritual struggles. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 4(2), 129–144. Scholar
  9. Ano, G. G., & Vasconcelles, E. B. (2005). Religious coping and psychological adjustment to stress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(4), 461–480. Scholar
  10. Bengtson, V. L., Silverstein, M., Putney, N. M., & Harris, S. C. (2015). Does religiousness increase with age? Age changes and generational differences over 35 years. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 54(2), 363–379. Scholar
  11. Berning, J. N., Poor, A. D., Buckley, S. M., Patel, K. R., Lederer, D. J., Goldstein, N. E., et al. (2016). A novel picture guide to improve spiritual care and reduce anxiety in mechanically ventilated adults in the intensive care unit. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 13(8), 1333–1342. Scholar
  12. Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59(1), 20–28. Scholar
  13. Bormann, J. E., Aschbacher, K., Wetherell, J. L., Roesch, S., & Redwine, L. (2009). Effects of faith/assurance on cortisol levels are enhanced by a spiritual mantram intervention in adults with HIV: A randomized trial. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 66(2), 161–171. Scholar
  14. Bradshaw, M., Ellison, C. G., Fang, Q., & Mueller, C. (2015). Listening to religious music and mental health in later life. The Gerontologist, 55(6), 961–971. Scholar
  15. Bearon, L., & Koenig, H. (1990). Religious cognitions and use of prayer in health and illness. Gerontologist, 30(2), 249–253. Scholar
  16. Brewster, M., Velez, B., Foster, A., Esposito, J., & Robinson, M. (2016). Minority stress and the moderating role of religious coping among religious and spiritual sexual minority individuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63(1), 119–126. Scholar
  17. Buber, M. (1958). I and thou (trans: R.G. Smith). New York, NY: Scribner.Google Scholar
  18. Candy, B., Jones, L., Varagunam, M., Speck, P., Tookman, A., and King, M. (2012). Spiritual and religious interventions for well-being of audlts in the terminal phase of disease (Review). In The cochrane collaboration. Wiley Ltd.Google Scholar
  19. Cashwell, C. S., Bentley, P. B., & Yarborough, J. P. (2007). The only way out is through: The peril of spiritual bypass. Counseling and Values, 51(2), 139–148. Scholar
  20. Cole, B. S., Hopkins, C. M., Tisak, J., Steel, J. L., & Carr, B. I. (2008). Assessing spiritual growth and spiritual decline following a diagnosis of cancer: Reliability and validity of the spiritual transformation scale. Psycho-oncology, 17(2), 112–121. Scholar
  21. Crabtree, S. (2010, August 31). Religiosity highest in world’s poorest nations. Retrieved May 23, 2017, from
  22. D’Aquili, A. B., & Newberg, E. G. (1998). The neuropsychology of spiritual experience. In H. G. Koenig (Ed.), Handbook of religion and mental health (pp. 75–94). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  23. Desai, K. M., & Pargament, K. I. (2015). Predictors of growth and decline following spiritual struggles. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 25(1), 42–56. Scholar
  24. Doolittle, B., Courtney, M., & Jasien, J. (2015). Satisfaction with life, coping, and spirituality among urban families. Journal of Primary Care & Community Health, 6(4), 256–259. Scholar
  25. Durkheim, E. (1915). The elementary forms of religious life: A study in religious sociology. (trans: Joseph Ward Swain). New York, NY: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  26. Emlet, C. A., Harris, L., Pierpaoli, C. M., & Furlotte, C. (2018). “The journey I have been through”: The role of religion and spirituality in aging well among HIV-positive older adults. Research on Aging, 40(3), 257–280. Scholar
  27. Exline, J. J. (2013). Religious and spiritual struggles. In K.I. Pargament (Editor-In-Chief), J. J. Exline, J. W. Jones (Associate Eds.), APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  28. Exline, J. J., Hall, T. W., Pargament, K. I., & Harriott, V. A. (2017). Predictors of growth from spiritual struggle among Christian undergraduates: Religious coping and perceptions of helpful action by God are both important. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(5), 501–508. Scholar
  29. Exline, J. J., Pargament, K. I., Grubbs, J. B., & Yali, A. M. (2014). The Religious and spiritual struggles scale: Development and initial validation. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6(3), 208–222. Scholar
  30. Exline, J. J., Park, C. L., Smyth, J. M., & Carey, M. P. (2011). Anger toward God: Social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(1), 129–148. Scholar
  31. Fetzer Institute/National Institute on Aging Working Group. (1999). Multidimensional measurement of religiousness/spirituality for use in health research: A report of the Fetzer Institute/National Institute on Aging Working Group. Kalamazoo: John E. Fetzer Institute.Google Scholar
  32. Ferraro, K. F., & Koch, J. R. (1994). Religion and health among black and white adults: Examining social support and consolation. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 33, 362–375. Scholar
  33. Frankl, V.E. (1984). Man’s search for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy. (Preface: Gordon W. Allport). New York, NY: Washington Square Press.Google Scholar
  34. Freud, S. (1927). The future of an illusion. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  35. Galen, L. (2017). Which functions assumed to be religious and spiritual in nature are ultimately attributable or reducible to purely secular mechanisms? Religion, Brain & Behavior, 7(4), 293–295. Scholar
  36. Gallup (2010). Religiosity highest in world’s poorest nations. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from
  37. Gerber, M., Boals, A., & Schuettler, D. (2011). The unique contributions of positive and negative religious coping to posttraumatic growth and PTSD. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 3(4), 298–307. Scholar
  38. Gill, C. S., Barrio Minton, C., & Myers, J. (2015). Poor, rural women: Spirituality, religion, and wellness across the life span. Adultspan Journal, 14(2), 66–76. Scholar
  39. Gloria, C. T., & Steinhardt, M. A. (2014). Relationships among positive emotions, coping, resilience and mental health. Stress and Health, 32(2), 145–156. Scholar
  40. Gonçalves, J. P. B., Lucchetti, G., Menezes, P. R., & Vallada, H. (2015). Religious and spiritual interventions in mental health care: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Psychological Medicine, 45(14), 2937–2949. Scholar
  41. Hayward, R. D., & Krause, N. (2016). Classes of individual growth trajectories of religious coping in older adulthood: Patterns and predictors. Research on Aging, 38(5), 554–579. Scholar
  42. Henslee, A. M., Coffey, S. F., Schumacher, J. A., Tracy, M., Norris, F. H., & Galea, S. (2015). Religious coping and psychological and behavioral adjustment after Hurricane Katrina. The Journal of Psychology, 149(6), 630–642. Scholar
  43. Hill, T., Ellison, C., Burdette, A., Taylor, J., & Friedman, K. (2016). Dimensions of religious involvement and leukocyte telomere length. Social Science and Medicine, 163, 168–175. Scholar
  44. Hodge, D. R. (2005). Developing a spiritual assessment toolbox: A discussion of the strengths and limitations of five different assessment methods. Health and Social Work, 30(4), 314–323. Scholar
  45. Holloway, M., Adamson, S., McSherry, W., & Swinton, J. (2011). Spiritual care at the end of life: A systematic review of the literature. London: Department of Health.Google Scholar
  46. Hulett, J. M., & Armer, J. M. (2016). A systematic review of spiritually based interventions and psychoneuroimmunological outcomes in breast cancer survivorship. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 15(4), 405–423. Scholar
  47. Hummer, R. A., Ellison, C. G., Rogers, R. G., Moulton, B. E., & Romero, R. R. (2004). Religious involvement and adult mortality in the United States: Review and perspective. Southern Medical Journal, 97(12), 1223–1231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ironson, G., Kremer, H., & Lucette, A. (2016). Relationship between spiritual coping and survival in patients with HIV. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 31(9), 1068–1076. Scholar
  49. Jim, H. S. L., Pustejovsky, J. E., Park, C. L., Danhauer, S. C., Sherman, A. C., Fitchett, G., et al. (2015). Religion, spirituality, and physical health in cancer patients: A meta-analysis: Religion/Spirituality and physical health. Cancer, 121(21), 3760–3768. Scholar
  50. James, W. (1961). The varieties of religious experience. New York: NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  51. Johnson, C. V., & Hayes, J. A. (2003). Troubled Spirits: Prevalence and predictors of religious and spiritual concerns among university students and counseling center clients. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50(4), 409–419. Scholar
  52. Kirkpatrick, L. A. (2005). Attachment, evaluation, and psychology of religion. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  53. Kaufman, Y., Anaki, D., Binns, M., & Freedman, M. (2007). Cognitive decline in alzheimer disease—Impact of spirituality, religiosity, and QOL. Neurology, 68(18), 1509–1514. Scholar
  54. Koenig, H. G. (2015). Religion, spirituality, and health: A review and update. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 29(3), 19–26. Scholar
  55. Koenig, H. G., Al Zaben, F., Khalifa, D. A., & Al Shohaib, S. (2014). Measures of religiosity. In G. J. Boyle, D. H. Saklofske, & G. Matthews (Eds.), Measures of personality and social psychological constructs. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  56. Krause, N., Pargament, K. I., Hill, P. C., Wong, S., & Ironson, G. (2017a). Exploring the relationships among age, spiritual struggles, and health. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 29(4), 266–285. Scholar
  57. Krause, N., Pargament, K. I., & Ironson, G. (2017). Spiritual struggles and health: Assessing the influence of socioeconomic status. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion.Google Scholar
  58. Lawson, E. J., & Thomas, C. (2007). Wading in the Waters: Spirituality and older black Katrina survivors. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 18(2), 341–354. Scholar
  59. Lee, E.-K. O. (2007). Religion and spirituality as predictors of well-being among Chinese American and Korean American older adults. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 19(3), 77–100. Scholar
  60. MacKinlay, E., & Burns, R. (2017). Spirituality promotes better health outcomes and lowers anxiety about aging: The importance of spiritual dimensions for baby boomers as they enter older adulthood. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 29(4), 248–265. Scholar
  61. Manning, L. K. (2013). Navigating hardships in old age: Exploring the relationship between spirituality and resilience in later life. Qualitative Health Research, 23(4), 568–575. Scholar
  62. Manning, L. K. (2014). Enduring as lived experience: Exploring the essence of spiritual resilience for women in late life. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(2), 352–362. Scholar
  63. Martinez, C. T., & Scott, C. (2014). In search of the meaning of happiness through flow and spirituality. The International Journal of Health, Wellness, and Society, 4(1), 37–49. Scholar
  64. McConnell, K. M., Pargament, K. I., Ellison, C. G., & Flannelly, K. J. (2006). Examining the links between spiritual struggles and symptoms of psychopathology in a national sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(12), 1469–1484. Scholar
  65. Mercadante, L. A. (2014). Belief without borders: Inside the minds of the spiritual but not religious. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mollica, M. A., Underwood, W., Homish, G. G., Homish, D. L., & Orom, H. (2016). Spirituality is associated with better prostate cancer treatment decision making experiences. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 39(1), 161–169. Scholar
  67. Moore, R. C., Eyler, L. T., Mausbach, B. T., Zlatar, Z. Z., Thompson, W. K., Peavy, G., et al. (2015). Complex interplay between health and successful aging: Role of perceived stress, resilience, and social support. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23(6), 622–632. Scholar
  68. Murray-Swank, N. A., & Pargament, K. I. (2005). God, where are you?: Evaluating a spiritually-integrated intervention for sexual abuse. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 8(3), 191–203. Scholar
  69. Neff, K. D., & Knox, M. (2017). Self-Compassion. In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. Shakelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of personality and individual differences. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  70. Oemig-Dworsky, C. K., Pargament, K. I., Wong, S., & Exline, J. J. (2016). Suppressing spiritual struggles: The role of experiential avoidance in mental health. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 5(4), 258–265. Scholar
  71. Oh, P.-J., & Kim, S. H. (2014). The effects of spiritual interventions in patients with cancer: A meta-analysis. Oncology Nursing Forum, 41(5), E290–E301. Scholar
  72. Oman, D. (2013). Defining religion and spirituality. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 23–47). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  73. Oxhandler, H. K., & Pargament, K. I. (2017). Measuring religious and spiritual competence across helping professions: Previous efforts and future directions. Spirituality in Clinical Practice: Advance online publication. Scholar
  74. Pargament, K. I. (2013). Spirituality as an irreducible human motivation and process. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 23(4), 271–281. Scholar
  75. Pargament, K. I. (2007). Spiritually integrated psychotherapy: Understanding and addressing the sacred. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  76. Pargament, K. I. (2002). Is religion nothing but.? Explaining religion versus explaining religion away. Psychological Inquiry, 13(3), 239–244. Scholar
  77. Pargament, K. I. (1997). The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  78. Pargament, K. I., Desai, K. M., & McConnell, K. M. (2006). Spirituality: A pathway to posttraumatic growth or decline? In L. G. Calhoun & R. G. Tedeschi (Eds.), Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice (pp. 121–137). Mahway, MJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  79. Pargament, K. I., Feuille, M., & Burdzy, D. (2011). The brief RCOPE: Current psychometric status of a short measure of religious coping. Religions, 2(1), 51–76. Scholar
  80. Pargament, K. I., Koenig, H. G., Tarakeshwar, N, & Hahn, J. (2001). Religious struggle as a predictor of mortality among medically ill elderly patients: A 2-year longitudinal study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 161(15), 1881–1885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pargament, K. I., Koenig, H. G., Tarakeshwar, N., & Hahn, J. (2004). Religious coping methods as predictors of psychological, physical and spiritual outcomes among medically ill elderly patients: A two-year longitudinal study. Journal of Health Psychology, 9(6), 713–730. Scholar
  82. Pargament, K. I., Lomax, J. W., McGee, J. S., & Fang, Q. (2014). Sacred moments in psychotherapy from the perspectives of mental health providers and clients: Prevalence, predictors, and consequences. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 1(4), 248–262. Scholar
  83. Pargament, K. I., Magyar-Russell, G. M., & Murray-Swank, N. A. (2005). The sacred and the search for significance: religion as a unique process. Journal of Social Issues, 61(4), 665–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pargament, K. I., & Mahoney, A. (2005). Sacred matters: Sanctification as a vital topic for the psychology of religion. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 15(3), 179–198. Scholar
  85. Pargament, K. I., Wong, S., & Exline, J. J. (2016). Wholeness and holiness: The spiritual dimension of eudaimonics. In J. Vittersø (Ed.), Handbook of eudaimonic well-being (pp. 379–394). Cham: Springer International Publishing. Scholar
  86. Park, C. L., Holt, C. L., Le, D., Christie, J., & Williams, B. R. (2017). Positive and negative religious coping styles as prospective predictors of well-being in African Americans. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. Scholar
  87. Peterman, A. H., Fitchett, G., Brady, M. J., Hernandez, L., & Cella, D. (2002). Measuring spiritual well-being in people with cancer: The functional assessment of chronic illness therapy—Spiritual Well-being Scale (FACIT-Sp). Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24(1), 49–58. Scholar
  88. Pew Research Center. (2008). Religious beliefs and practices. Retrieved May 23, 2017, from
  89. Piderman, K. M., Radecki Breitkopf, C., Jenkins, S. M., Lapid, M. I., Kwete, G. M., Sytsma, T. T., et al. (2017). The impact of a spiritual legacy intervention in patients with brain cancers and other neurologic illnesses and their support persons: Impact of a spiritual legacy intervention. Psycho-Oncology, 26(3), 346–353. Scholar
  90. Plassman, B., Williams, J., Burke, J., Holsinger, T., & Benjamin, S. (2010). Systematic review: Factors associated with risk for and possible prevention of cognitive decline in later life. Annals of Internal Medicine, 153(3), 182–193. Scholar
  91. Poloma, M. M., & Gallup, G. H. (1991). Varieties of prayer: A survey report. Philadelphia, PA: Trinity Press International.Google Scholar
  92. Porter, K. E., Brennan-Ing, M., Burr, J. A., Dugan, E., & Karpiak, S. E. (2017). Stigma and psychological well-being among older adults with HIV: The impact of spirituality and integrative health approaches. The Gerontologist, 57(2), 219–228. Scholar
  93. Prati, G., & Pietrantoni, L. (2009). Optimism, social support, and coping strategies as factors contributing to posttraumatic growth: A meta-analysis. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 14(5), 364–388. Scholar
  94. Rafferty, K. A., Billig, A. K., & Mosack, K. E. (2015). Spirituality, religion, and health: the role of communication, appraisals, and coping for individuals living with chronic illness. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(5), 1870–1885. Scholar
  95. Raines, A., Currier, J., McManus, E., Walton, J., Uddo, M., & Franklin, C. (2017; 2016). Spiritual struggles and suicide in veterans seeking PTSD treatment. Psychological Trauma-Theory Research Practice and Policy, 9(6), 746–749. Scholar
  96. Rajagopal, D., Mackenzie, E., Bailey, C., & Lavizzo-Mourey, R. (2002). The effectiveness of a spiritually-based intervention to alleviate subsyndromal anxiety and minor depression among older adults. Journal of Religion and Health, 41(2), 153–166. Scholar
  97. Ridgeway, J., Eton, D. T., Egginton, J. S., Tiedje, K., Linzer, M., Boehm, D., et al. (2014). Factors that lessen the burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions: A qualitative study. Patient Preference and Adherence, 339.
  98. Rizzuto, A. (1979). The bird of the living God: A psychoanalytic study. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  99. Ronneberg, C., Miller, E., Dugan, E., & Porell, F. (2016). The protective effects of religiosity on depression: A 2-year prospective study. Gerontologist, 56(3), 421–431. Scholar
  100. Sanchez, M., Dillon, F. R., Concha, M., & De La Rosa, M. (2015). The impact of religious coping on the acculturative stress and alcohol use of recent latino immigrants. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(6), 1986–2004. Scholar
  101. Schlehofer, M. M., Omoto, A. M., & Adelman, J. R. (2008). How do “Religion” and “Spirituality” differ? Lay definitions among older adults. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 47(3), 411–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Silverstein, M., & Bengtson, V. L. (2018). Return to religion? Predictors of religious change among baby-boomers in their transition to later life. Journal of Population Ageing, 11(1), 7–21. Scholar
  103. Shaheen Al Ahwal, M., Al Zaben, F., Sehlo, M. G., Khalifa, D. A., & Koenig, H. G. (2016). Religious beliefs, practices, and health in colorectal cancer patients in Saudi Arabia. Psycho-oncology, 25(3), 292–299. Scholar
  104. Stauner, N., Exline, J., Grubbs, J., Pargament, K., Bradley, D., & Uzdavines, A. (2016). Bifactor models of religious and spiritual struggles: Distinct from religiousness and distress. Religions, 7(6), 68. Scholar
  105. Stroppa, A., Colugnati, F. A., Koenig, H. G., & Moreira-Almeida, A. (2018). Religiosity, depression, and quality of life in bipolar disorder: A two-year prospective study. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, (0). Scholar
  106. Tarakeshwar, N., Pearce, M. J., & Sikkema, K. J. (2005). Development and implementation of a spiritual coping group intervention for adults living with HIV/AIDS: A pilot study. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 8(3), 179–190. Scholar
  107. Teresa, M., & Kolodiejchuk, B. (2007). Mother Teresa: Come be my light: The private writings of the Saint of Calcutta. New York, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  108. Trevino, K. M., Balboni, M., Zollfrank, A., Balboni, T., & Prigerson, H. G. (2014). Negative religious coping as a correlate of suicidal ideation in patients with advanced cancer: Religious coping and suicidal ideation in cancer patients. Psycho-Oncology, 23(8), 936–945. Scholar
  109. Unantenne, N., Warren, N., Canaway, R., & Manderson, L. (2013). The strength to cope: Spirituality and faith in chronic disease. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(4), 1147–1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Vahia, I. V., Depp, C. A., Palmer, B. W., Fellows, I., Golshan, S., Thompson, W., et al. (2011). Correlates of spirituality in older women. Aging & Mental Health, 15(1), 97–102. Scholar
  111. Vieten, C., Scammell, S., Pilato, R., Ammondson, I., Pargament, K., & Lukoff, D. (2013). Spiritual and religious competencies for psychologists. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 5(3), 129–144. Scholar
  112. Wachholtz, A. B., Pearce, M. J., & Koenig, H. (2007). Exploring the relationship between spirituality, coping, and pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30(4), 311–318. Scholar
  113. Winter, U., Hauri, D., Huber, S., Jenewein, J., Schnyder, U., & Kraemer, B. (2009). The psychological outcome of religious coping with stressful life events in a swiss sample of church attendees. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 78(4), 240–244. Scholar
  114. Whitfield, C. (2003). My recovery: A personal plan for healing. Deerfield Beach, FL: HCI.Google Scholar
  115. Wong, S., & Pargament, K.I. (2018, April). Seeing their soul: Sacred moments as a predictor of wellbeing for family caregivers. Poster presented at the Bowling Green State University Charles E. Shanklin Colloquium, Bowling Green, Ohio.Google Scholar
  116. Wortmann, J., Park, C., & Edmondson, D. (2011). Trauma and PTSD symptoms: Does spiritual struggle mediate the link? Psychological Trauma-Theory Research Practice and Policy, 3(4), 442–452. Scholar
  117. Yonker, J. E., Schnabelrauch, C. A., & DeHaan, L. G. (2012). The relationship between spirituality and religiosity on psychological outcomes in adolescents and emerging adults: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Adolescence, 35(2), 299–314. Scholar
  118. Zinnbauer, B. J., Pargament, K. I., Cole, B., Rye, M. S., Butter, E. M., Belavich, T. G., et al. (1997). Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzying the fuzzy. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 36(4), 549–564. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Serena Wong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kenneth I. Pargament
    • 1
  • Carol Ann Faigin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyBowling Green State UniversityBowling GreenUSA
  2. 2.River Tree Health PartnersReadfieldUSA

Personalised recommendations