Recent In Situ/Operando Characterization of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

  • Yan YangEmail author
  • Yimin Zhu
  • Kumar Raju
  • Sheng Dai
  • Charl J. JaftaEmail author
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 24)


To address the ever-increasing energy demand due to the increase in the population and at the same time depleting fossil fuel reserves, new energy storage systems, such as batteries, are being developed. Among various battery systems, Li-S batteries have comparatively high theoretical energy density and lower cost, making Li-S batteries very promising for next-generation secondary batteries. However, the current energy density and capacity decay with cycling of Li-S batteries do not fulfill the industrialization needs. To overcome the drawbacks of Li-S batteries and improve its performance, better mechanism understanding is necessary. A great deal of ex situ characterization research has been conducted making a lot of progress in the understanding of the working mechanism. Considering the complexity of the intermediate lithium polysulfides and the inherent multi-electron reaction pathways, advanced in situ/operando techniques are highly required. In this chapter, recent progress of a few typical in situ/operando characterization techniques used in Li-S battery studies is reviewed. These techniques provide more in-depth understanding of Li-S batteries in different aspects and could be enlightening for other energy storage systems too.


Operando In situ Characterization techniques XRD SAXS TEM TXM XRF AFM 



C. J. Jafta and S. Dai were supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division. Y. Yang and Y. M. Zhu thank the Xinghai Program (205000/02500512) and Collaborative Innovation Center for Vessel Pollution Monitoring and Control Seed Foundation (205000/017180517) of Dalian Maritime University for financial support.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Collaborative Innovation Center for Vessel Pollution Monitoring and ControlDalian Maritime UniversityDalianChina
  2. 2.Energy Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial ResearchPretoriaSouth Africa
  3. 3.Chemical Science DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA

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