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Surface-Modified Conducting Polymer-Based Nanostructured Materials for the Removal of Toxic Heavy Metals from Wastewater

  • Raghunath Das
  • Kamdem Paumo Hugues
  • Arjun MaityEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 25)

Abstract

In the last few decades, there has been a significant escalation in the level of toxic heavy metals in water bodies due to their exponential industrial usage. These hazardous water and soil pollutants have been broadly investigated for their serious effects on human health and other life systems, and their lethal concentrations have been reviewed by well-established international bodies, including the WHO and US EPA. Therefore, efficient remediation of toxic heavy metals from wastewater represents a major burden for the environmentalists. Amongst other numerous techniques reported for that purpose, adsorption technology has been established as one of the conventional and promising procedures for effective application at relatively low cost. Recent data show that conducting polymers and their functionalised derivatives as adsorbents have received substantial attention for As(III), As(V), Cr(VI), Pb(II), Zn(II), Hg(II) and Cu(II) remediation from polluted streams (i.e. industrial effluents, mine wastewaters, landfill leachate and groundwater). The common goal of the research behind these fascinating adsorbents is to develop supported nanostructures with enhanced performance for wastewater treatment systems. Nanostructured materials of different shape and morphology exhibit better performance in environmental remediation than their macromolecular counterparts, owing to large surface area associates with high surface reactivity. The current chapter reviews the synthesis and adsorption studies (isotherm, kinetics, maximum capacities and thermodynamics) of recently reported nanostructured conducting polymer-based materials for treatment of As(III)-, As(V)-, Cr(VI)- and Hg(II)-contaminated water medium.

Keywords

Conducting polymer nanocomposites Heavy metal ions Wastewater treatment Adsorption kinetics Adsorption isotherms Adsorption thermodynamics Breakthrough adsorption modelling 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raghunath Das
    • 1
  • Kamdem Paumo Hugues
    • 1
  • Arjun Maity
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Applied ChemistryUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.DST/CSIR National Center for Nanostructured MaterialsCouncil for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)PretoriaSouth Africa

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