Third-Generation Solar Cells: Concept, Materials and Performance - An Overview
The large scarcity of natural fuels in earth crust has triggered to search alternative energy reservoirs for the future generation of human life. Because of large abundancy, solar energy is considered as big hope for the future generation energy utilization for commercial as well as home applications. The scientific revolution achieved in synthesis and processing of semiconductor nanomaterials, organic conducting polymers have led into new dimension in fabrication of future-generation solar cells. Reduction in the dimension of semiconductor nanomaterials significantly influences on their structural and optical properties which is helpful for the excellent photon harvesting. Also, their large surface area is further favourable to assist with the attachment of several organic or inorganic compounds in order to functionalize them effectively. Developments that have been made in semiconducting organic polymers still encourage the fabrication of highly efficient, flexible solar cell devices on conducting substrates. Formation of nanocomposites, hybrids, alloy system, doping, etc. are successfully carried out on different kinds of inorganic semiconductor nanomaterials for the photovoltaic applications. The day-by-day improvement in terms of efficiency and new materials development predicts that the breakthrough to achieve highly stable, high-efficiency solar cell is about the near future. In this aspect, this chapter summarizes the development in the solar cells research of each category with general aspects. The important parameters and process that affects the performance of each category is outlined.
KeywordsCrystalline silicon Ruthenium dyes Quantum dots Semiconducting polymers Perovskite solar cells Charge transport Colloidal synthesis Redox electrolyte Open-circuit voltage
The authors sincerely acknowledge DST (DST/TMC/SERI/FR/90), Govt. of India and DST-PURSE for funding the research.
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